Report to Foreign Minister M. Dominique de Villepin
Independent committee of reflection and proposals on French-Haitian relations
Table of contents
I Reports (facts?)
A singular absence p. 5
Which kind of debt? p. 11
Brackish assessment (overview)… p. 17
A news grant? p. 25
Tracks for a takeoff (economic) 35
École p. and culture: hand in the hand p. 42
Diplomacy/safety p. 51
État of right/Institutions p. 59
Economie/Cooperation p. 65
Éducation/Culture p. 75
“Reparations for slavery”? p. 84
“Restitution of the debt of independence”? p. 89
Religious situation p. 92
Pandiassou: an original community p. 95
Loans without refunding of capital p. 97
This report concerns to become to it franco haitian relations as a whole. It does not concern a gesture in favor. It is an act of friendship towards a whole people, including towards those which do not have a say. No side in Haiti, opposition or power, could not thus be prevailed about it, nor of to offend.
The political economic situation of this country was or will make the object other types of intervention on the part of the members of the Committee. It acts here to transcend it, to contribute to a distinct future and in any case better.
A singular absence
“No oil, not of uranium nor of precious stones, null weapon of massive destruction, not of strategic strait, not of terrorists with export, hardly of pleasing beaches, an endemic AIDS and thousands of boat-people that the currents push towards Florida or them The Bahamas. Drug? It slips by especially towards North. The United States can well fear a Liberia with their doors, and act, or abstain from, in consequence. It is their business. This galley, this wasp's nest, this bazaar of odd, this pot of the devil: few dividends for us, if one there engage more than with half, and not large-thing to be lost, if one releases oneself some once and for all. ”
Let us answer from the start this imaginary evil genius that it mislead: it is not enough to be cynical to show realism. Undoubtedly, on a rather rough planet where the small ones have only two means of putting forward itself, capacity of harmful effect or of seduction, it the poorest country of Americas, a little smaller than Belgium, 27 500 km2, less than 9 million inhabitants, do not seem a stake of importance for the French interests, nor for a European interest supported.
This chauvinistic myopia which put on the indifference of the opinion at overseas would do well little case of the close French departments confronted with an increasing and clandestine immigration (a quarter of Guianese population, already, is Haitian). If it is certainly true that it piece of Africa in America was grabbed since 1915, beginning of nineteen years a military occupation, in the magnetic field from the United States, doctrines of Monroe oblige, the only State officially French-speaking person of “the hemisphere” is not only for us French a half-brother whom one left at the edge of the road (too far, too expensive, too much agitated). Pass the colonial empires, remain their language and them right. It is also a witness. Initially, of what can become in the long term any precursory country and thrives, when its elites are exonerated and that the State has suddenly disappeared. Witness especially, of what can make or not the international community to draw from the pit all these grey areas on the map of the world which become with their regional environment what the black holes are with cosmos.
Relations of France with Zimbabwe, Cuba, or Burma raise of its foreign politics. Our relationship with Haiti is more delicate, emotive and retractile because into clearly-obscure, they bring into play relationships of France with itself. Republic with sound colonial, monarchical and imperial past. Our rich person and beautiful cities coastal (Nantes, La Rochelle, Bordeaux) with the draft of the ebony wood and triangular trade which made their richness and their beauty. Of our amnesic modernity with the black Code and the brigs slave traders with long wakes (beyond 1848, date on our premises of the official abolition of slavery). This intimacy a little embarrassing overflows the reports well-known of love/hatred enters a metropolis and its old colony. The colonist having brought here by the force and the rape colonized with he, or the White, Black, without having to subjugate a population indigenous already disappeared with the Treaty from Ryswick (1693), which conceded with France one the Western third of Hispaniola discovered by Colomb, them French remain, for the best and the worst, the joint authors of this bet sophisticated, Christian and voodoo, to horse enters Guinea and Manhattan, nationalist and nomad, pre-modern and post-modern, mystical and tie up, where death is banal and the more intense life. Where one speaks, writes one language, painted paintings, fact of the music, and tells stories as one would like to hear some, to read some, to see some more in Paris. This “pathetic nation”, that the businessmen avoid, tourists circumvent, television scorns (in France, not elsewhere), the intelligentsia is unaware of, and of which only, in-outside diplomats, our Christian mediums keep a permanent concern, nourished in vain its sap (seve) Aime Césaire, André Breton and André Malraux, it has very for to disturb. And thus to be erased our screens.
It is precisely the problem: Haiti belongs to our history, but not of our memory. The weak one knows the fort, which ignores it. We are recipient with the legendary Haitian, which does not have any place in ours. The insurgent slaves of 1791 however gave its to make according to 1789. How much French know that the Declaration human rights and of the Citizen was initiated in Paris but accomplished with Santo Domingo, where the human rights white became, almost with our knowledge, universal for good? Welcome this bicentenary, which us recall the advance slow and diverted ideal to manpower (the rights of the man do not have the marine foot). In this direction, 1789 belong to the history of Haiti as its independence of 1804 belongs to the history of France - and world. How much still knows that it is the delegation Haitian with the Conference of San Francisco in 1945 which, involving them Latin-American votes, and against the Anglo-Saxon hostility, imposed it French like second working language of the United Nations (“France owes you an eternal recognition”, Georges launched then Bidault, president of the French delegation, with the Haitian Minister, “you will be made large Officer of the Legion of Honor”, which, of course, lost on the way)? Haiti is in this respect patient of too much memory, and France of a step enough. Two Presidents of the United States, Franklin Roosevelt and Clinton, pressed the Haitian ground; but no President French, and no Prime Minister. With truth, we drove back all the epic first black Republic of the world (and first State independent of Latin America). It inflicted its first defeat soldier with the incipient Empire, before Trafalgar, while demolishing, the yellow fever helping, the 47,000 expeditionary ones ordered by the Leclerc General, brother-in-law of Napoleon. The slave humiliated the Master. Any Haitian of remembers. The French fall from the naked ones: Napoleon the slave one embanked by Negros? Not intended to cause. If the history is critical and distanciée rebuilding of what really was, and memory, our lens of refraction posed on these events, forged with identity ends, holy history exempted by the school, handbooks and museums to give to a human group its higher regard of oneself, - each people, let us know we it well in Europe, cuts its glory in turpitudes of the neighbor. After all, the same Haitian heroes, who shook the yoke of their metropolis, imposed it to their neighbors Dominican, which had to be released from them by the force of the weapons (1820-1844). The quasi-disappearance of Haiti, often confused with Tahiti in the conversations, and more largely of slavery in our novel national, does not proceed of a gap nor of an interdict, but of an erasure with the Freudian direction. The black face of the Lights (the century of all more slave), or the back of the European gloss, - choking holds, amputations, chicotte, tortures, whip is not only our compatriots want more to contemplate in their past. Let us add the distance geographical and seniority of a decolonization before the hour, and one will understand how could lose the sons of an intermingled destiny, that the Haitian bicentenary thus encourages to join again. It is right to ask with this community-memory of the Antilles, the forced migrations, to turn towards a finally practicable future instead of cherishing its marks and to re-sift its objections. Can our Haitian friends assume their share of responsibilities in the incredible tumble which made pass in two centuries the “Pearl of the Antilles”, the richest colony of the world, who ensured one the third of the foreign trade of France it Kuwait of century of Voltaire on a Sahelian level of curse, with indices concordants1. It would be unjust, that goes without saying, not to require us the same exercise of truth, by replaçant in the body of our annals it that we tend only too to put in footnote. Can we seize the occasion to recall us that we were slave, and to remove us from the weight which the constraint imposes on Masters. It is the utility of the commemorative dates: while making emerge hidden memories, to allow each one to make its mourning of its humiliations like its triumphs. One can then exorcize them phantoms to face the calls of the future, but into full full knowledge of the facts (S). What was done with Algeria, courageously, in 2003, on the initiative of the President of the Republic, will undoubtedly have to make one day with Haiti.
1 GNP: 350 euros per capita. Average hope of life: 52 years. A doctor for 30,000 inhabitants in rural area. Infant mortality, 81 per 1000. It is of 4 in France and of 7 in Cuba.
Which kind of debt?
If it is always perilous to turn a page of history while making litter of the preceding chapters, all is in the manner. Manner strong chosen by President Aristide raises, alas, of the dispute legal, doubled aggressive demonstrations, and of an accountancy oneiric, i.e. except for the centime. Duly advised by a cabinet business American, he claims in France 21,685,135 571 US dollars and 48 hundreds. That is to say the capitalized value, according to its statement, for year 2003 of 90 versed franc million but in France by Haiti between 1825 and 1885, following two treaties concluded between the Bourbons (1825) and Orleans (1838) and the Republic of Haiti. Even if our Committee is not charged with a calculator, on a subject considered without object by the Ministry for Foreign affairs and in-outside our mandate, it is necessary for us to return on these two leitmotivs of restitution and repair, stressed on walls and streamers, re-sifted through speech and ceremonies. This countryside of propaganda was launched drum beating by the Haitian President at the time of bicentenary of the death of Toussaint-Louverture, Spartacus of the independence locked up at the height of Joux by Napoleon and deliberately sacrificed (on April 7th, 1803). Were not us ourselves not confronted, with our defending body, at the time of our stay in Haiti, at the Commission Haitian made up of the three Foreign Ministers, of Justice and of the Haitians living abroad (nearly two million, between The United States, Canada and France), plus an American and a French, setting-up to find “a payment right and final of question”? Let us distinguish the topics well, even if they are connected. Restitution applies to the refunding of the debt known as (wrongly) of independence, and repair with the compensations for two centuries of slavery, this crime against humanity (see appendices 1 and 2).
Demagogic alibi to make forget a deficit of program and achievements? Easy subterfuge to escape very given from accounts after the promises? Imitation of the recent lawsuits with American accusing the companies for complicity of slavery (front 1865) or of apartheid (South Africa)? If operation there is, it will have made failure. We did not meet a person in charge in the opposition democratic to really take with serious these claims monetarists of last minute, who find relatively little echoes in populate (if not against tariffed remuneration). Most our auditioned, with notable exception of the excellent Paul Farmer (the specialist universally known of the AIDS), could begin again on their account position of René Depestre, the great writer free-Haitian: “To want to regulate the accounts of a completed past in a historical context which is not any more that of iniquities of the Rochambeau General, nor of the responses not less fatal of the founders of our national identity, me does not appear the most serene manner, most intelligent, nor more civilized, to give an international glare to the celebration of the origins from Haiti. The stakes in front of which universalization in progress places us should rather incline the Haitians of 2003-2004 to invent, into narrow and friendly dialog with France of the 21st century, the forms of co-operation and of solidarity which would be right the reverse of the relations colonial of formerly. ” Let us note that President Aristide, itself, insist on this point, in deprived, “dialog and not confrontation”.
Whatever our personal aversions and empathies, force we was to take note, after consultation of the best experts, than the Haitian request does not have a legal basis, except requalifying juridically acts belonging to the past and to admit one inadmissible retroactivity of the laws and standards. And until which date? Calvinist partisans? St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre? Albigensians? Crusades? Alésia? The international law requires that an act or a treaty be appreciated taking into consideration right in force to the moment when this act or this treaty is products. It is certainly in our scandalous eyes that Haiti had in some left to buy in francs/or its international recognition after having conquered its independence at the cost of blood, but should it be recalled that it didn't right to self-determination of the people exist in 1838? Not more that concept of crime against humanity, born the shortly after Second world war. The history objectifies concept of sovereignty - let us think of Louisiana sold in the United States without consultation of the inhabitants, contradicts the random access memory once more. The first does not admit the anachronism, which makes live the second. Us proposed to our interlocutors the formation of a Joint Committee (of) historians to establish the sequence of the facts and their circumstances exact, where one would see with a certain surprise that the idea of one compensation for the massacred French colonists (15 000) or in escape (15 000) came from the Haitian Presidents themselves, Pétion and Boyer. No action pursuant was taken for the moment by the Haitian part to our offer of joint work, on a scientific basis. As for diplomatic channel, to suppose that one wants to leave the gesticulatoire, it should logically lead our interlocutors towards the Court international of Justice of $the Hague, charged to regulate the litigations enters States. Free in the government of President Aristide, if he believes in his cause, to seize this jurisdictional authority. France would not have any reason to doubt the exit of such an arbitration.
The international law does not solve all. And it is not parce that a question is very improperly put that one cannot there to decipher, in second analysis, a feeling legitimates injustice, or the skewed expression of a justified request for recognition. For any Haitian patriot, this old business causes incontestably a pinching in the middle. France owes and can it to understand. In the fact testifies that it is the only country of Europe which has recognized by an unanimously voted law (the law Taubira of May 21st, 2001) that “the transatlantic draft négrière… and slavery perpetrated to leave 15th century in Americas and the Caribbean constitute a crime against humanity”. While refusing to open the Pandora's box of compensations (versed from when, by which, with which, and according to which criteria?), where the African and Arab countries, salesmen and purchasers, would have as much if not to spend more that Europeans, it expressed its regrets with the World conference against xenophobia and racism with Durban in September 2001. Finally let us recall that since the return of the President Aristide, the International community allocated overall except for Haiti of 2 billion euros, including more than two hundred million euros of assistance Frenchwoman. For us, the country is in priority zone of solidarity. France which made classify Haiti in 1990 among the ACP countries (Africa The Caribbean the Pacific) - privilege of which Santo Domingo, co-opted in movement, well better knew to benefit than its neighbor, spends peutêtre less on this station that in Togo and Cameroun but more than with Mexico and with Brazil, ten times more populated.
It must be clearly in any case that we register our proposals in a logic of solidarity and not of refunding. In the name of one obligation of a moral nature and not of a fantasy bank account debtor. One will thus say yes to the duty to remember, which is not repentance but recognition, and not with ressassement, because it is the future that it is necessary for us to put in building site. In a spirit of alliance and without false decency. While turning the back - as the fact already our co-operation, with old relation of assistantship, truncated relation because without reciprocity, and harmful because déresponsabilisante. The Haitians are in right of not to regard the International community as a source of unlimited gifts without counterparts. A honest collaboration between adults would be made impossible by what one could call the incrimination victimaire. This Janus including two faces, the resigner and paranoiac, do not make of it finally that one leads to all to wait the foreigner (it “which does make the International community? ” of Port-with Prince pointing out it “that made the police force? ” of on our premises), because “sé Blan ki déside”; and with all to also charge to him, because it is the fault with the other if nothing goes. Because it is same alienation, fruit of a past land-mark or defect of self-confidence, which sometimes angélise and sometimes diabolise. The White unload! One begs one day the Saver (it famous telephone call of Washington which would be enough in a wink with to make leave the tenant the National Palate), and one denounces the following day it Evil (“the Large ones of this world leagued against the poor of Haiti”). The required protective Wing becoming, as soon as obtained, Shade asphyxiating, - it is often the same one. We will need much of frankness, on both sides, to make escape ones (the “generous ones givers” who never had irons with the foot), with sympathy condescending, and others, heirs always tormented souls to the hell slave trader, with the disagreeable suspicion. It is difficult to reach “acting comprehension” necessary of the aliens of good will, middle course between the interference and the indifference, when they take place of to fear that reproach will be utilized to them, like not to intervene. To make, and not to make. Double-bind inhibiting, one in will be appropriate.
To act for Haiti supposes, for reasons as well ethical as practices, to act with and by Haitian officials. Without wanting to substitute for them. And on the basis of what already on the spot exists, by way of talents, of asset and organizations, to fit not in the folds of expired but in a certain historical continuity, far from the mortals mirages of the clean slate.
An excess of courtesy would condemn to balance: let us not dissimulate pas l' impression of waste which volumes of energy inspire, of time and of money poured in the past in this barrel of Danaïdes, this cemetery projects (without tombs nor steles), this eternal return of large hopes, where each new cycle erases the precedent. In Haiti, it rate of failure of the cooperation programs is abnormally high. And that of désabusement also, at the promoters. Is necessary it to point out it thin assessment of the launched educational reform with high expenses, in 1979, under Jean-Claude Duvalier, to revalorize the Creole (in particular), with the assistance France and UNESCO? The disappearance of the Teaching Institute National, heir to the old French teaching Mission, where France engaged, along the Eighties, of the million heavy francs, seventy co-operators non-créolophones, and of which there remain only them walls? That of the twenty centers of reading and cultural activity(AP) (them CRACK) started with our assistance, well little remain on foot.
It is not for lack of good will. Assistance of France east one older. Well before Haiti had access, in 1972, with privileged counters of the Inter-American Bank of Development or of the World Bank, the country profited from an educational co-operation, extended as from 1976 to other sectors such as roads, markets public, system of irrigation, drinking water adduction. During the Eighties, the opening to Port-au-Prince of an office of the ex-Case of French co-operation of Development (CCFD) made it possible to finance important projects of state enterprises in telecommunications (TELECO), energy distribution (EDH), airports… The unit appropriations of the CCFD was restructured in 1994, following the difficulties met by Haiti to face its external engagements, afterwards embargo imposed in answer to the military coup d'etat of 1991. And however, of all this work carried out in partnership with France hardly survive, in the Haitian public opinion, that the Road of the friendship, this road of 130 kilometers realized in the Seventies for to disenclose the town of Jacmel.
Force is to take note, if one wants to counter, of the disarrangement mentalities. Disorganizing individualism (four twenty parties policies); release of responsibilities harming continuity for projects, which stop sometimes with their promoter; inveterate selfishness of the expert leading class to make pass its front personal interests collective interest; collecting of the assistance by the small local leaders; difficulty to delegate or share the power: the Catholic Delegation for Co-operation, extremely well listed these obstacles and these unvoiced comments, of which it more painful remainder the brain drain. Exodus of the province towards capital initially, because the graduates trained with the capital do not return in their areas of origin and prefer to try their chance with Port-with Prince, where the companies are more numerous. Exodus especially of qualified frameworks towards the countries of North, Canada in the highest degree, who their gives, better than us, the facilities necessary (purses, visas, tickets). A first wave of emigration took place under Duvalier; flow began again today. One wonders sometimes if we do not help, via Haiti, with the development of North America. But how to reproach men and women educated well to want to leave a country which cannot or does not want use their competences, in their offering a level and a decent framework of life?
Consequence: it was not possible yet, according to the word of President Aristide, “to pass from misery will infra human with poverty worthy”.
One cannot prevent oneself at this stage from crossing two curves of figures. On a side, the amount of the European assistance allocated in Haiti enters 1994 and 1999, that is to say 487 million euros, of which about a fifth provided by France; other, the fall of the product per capita (GDP) with cours des the Nineties (2,6% per annum - source BID). In 2002 this one does not have still not found its level of 1989. Six Haitians out of 10 are today unemployed.
Would the financial manna have been insufficient? Not, since Haiti a long time appeared among the countries most helped in the world per capita of inhabitant. It is thus that it was to some extent inoperative. And we have our share in this inefficience.
Initially, by an ambitious assistance but in accordion. It has started in large pump in the Seventies at the time of “rediscovered” of Haiti to the title of the francophonie. After the death of François Duvalier, in 1971, the assistance hesitated, vis-a-vis the persistent dictatorship of its kid, before rebounding at the time of its fall in 1986 for to fall down brutally after the nauseous coup d'etat of 1991. It will go up again at the time of the return of Aristide in 1994 to blanch with the drift of the mode. No project can resist this Yo-yo harmful. And often the damage caused by a brutal stop, a repatriation precipitate, leave the things worse than they were not, without speaking of spirits. Here are which militates for a co-operation with the long breath in order to spread out at best the effect of these jolts. The most durable projects and more outstanding appeared, with use, as those which were at the same time them more modest and most flexible: country formation with Madian Salagnac (20 years) - popular department of health, SOE-Cimade (20 years). These projects survived because they rested especially on local structures and because they had been conceived to last beyond any possible crisis, by facilitating the integration of the country culture in the life of the entire country.
Then keep we to confuse the quality of the relation with going up of the assistance. Because if our mandate, let us recall it, relates to the relation total, in the long run, between two countries, to define with which to tie firstly this relation of equal footing, - State, associations, churches, lobbys, personalities it is necessary for us to risk a brief word on the own history of the partner.
All occurs like if the relation from Haiti with outside, in the occurrence with the Occident, was thus made that any action of this one, any attempt at intervention was it benevolent, causes one instinctive reaction of immunizing defense.
During the 20th century, the United States is the first to be had some fact the experiment following their attempt at occupation-colonization from Haiti in the years 1915-1934. Before withdrawing itself without glory of it critical and recalcitrant country. Their violent intervention started one reflex of larval rejection of all their efforts of “modernization” (according to their proper model) in the sectors of the public health, education or road equipment. As regards the State, they had removed for the first time the Haitian army with the continuation which one knows. Even the immense plantations which they had tried to restore, following brutal confiscations, are repercussions very quickly with the abandonment. One century earlier, the same process of abandonment had already started vis-a-vis colonial system of the plantation and the transformation of inherited sugar from the XVIII. Systematic dismantling was practically completed in Haiti teenager of 1840.
This inevitable bringing together brings back to us to this period-key of the independence which marked all the “Haitian being deeply”. Haiti was not in measurement then to make its mourning of slavery, like one it fact of a great pain. The sponge passage with Charles X in 1825 did not solve anything, since it confirmed in a direction the slave system (that France had deliberately Re-selected in 1802) while applying collectively in Haiti the traditional measurement of stamping individual that the Black Code envisaged for the individuals. This gesture, however inevitable, was at this painful point for the old one metropolis (traumatized amongst other things by the savage massacres the last French inhabitants by Dessalines) which it put more than twenty years at there to solve by relegating during this time this incongruous sovereignty in No man' S international Land.
If, on the side of France, nothing were clearly with respect to its old possession, for Haiti, slavery and its after-effects continued to weigh heavily. Independence, in oneself, is not enough to create a nation. In effect, the privileged class of the Creoles, those which had been born in the colony from Santo Domingo, then adapted itself, such as it is, the old colonial State and, passing from the statute of dominated with that of dominating, did not have of cease to control the great majority made up of all these other Haitians who, they, had been born in Africa. This bursting in two, bossales and Creoles, has survived the servile company and will maintain itself for two centuries in left that the cultural factor obéré the national factor.
In Haiti, more than everywhere else, the State preceded the nation, - and under its roughest form, power of the weapons resulting from the fights of independence. However this coastal, militarized State, decorated and occidentalized, taking the still hot place of the white Master, founded of such reports of exploitation and exclusion with the rural mass “African” of the interior (“country outwards”, to take again the formula of Gerard Barthelemy), that instead of accompanying the material development and mental of the nation, it systematically countered it. With Catholicism against the voodoo, French against the Creole, the Napoleon Code against common law, the army against the people, etc the parasitic State and predator extorts from the farming community the surpluses which are necessary for him, while the first families of import-export invest as much and outside than inside. No the accumulation of capital. Not administrative construction. No public utilities. “Marronnage” and behavior of escape generalized.
By hardening the feature: Haiti, until Duvalier was included yesterday, one State without nation. What emerges today from nation remains a company without State where, if the policies proliferate, the statesmen are rare and where, after the dissolution of the Army, the only organized structure covering the whole of the territory, remains, in spite of their internal divisions, that of churches, catholic and, to a lesser extent, Protestant women. A police force that one évertue to be transformed into militia, a pledged Justice or in escape, attacked Universities, administrations in deliquescence, one public budget lower than that of the hospital of Boston, a clannish vision general interest. Mégalomaniaque incompetence, logorrhoea, corruption, impunity, intimidation, let us not return on well-known romantic extravagances in the area, that them mid--imperial interventions mid--humanitarians make sometimes only worsen, at the end of the day. Let us think of the which upset results of the operation “Restore Democracy” led by the Clinton administration in 1994 under the flag of the United Nations: this military invasion, liberator with departure, will have finally restored, by way of democracy, only one dump anarco-authoritative (either disadvantages of the dictatorship without advantages).
The history of the free-Haitian relations shows that France initially made alliance, at the 19th century, with the creole State, - and how to make differently, since it was in place? -, while circumventing and while being unaware of country population of African stock. After the Second war world, it knew to discover and appreciate the African popular culture, with through the topic of the negritude (Césaire and Senghor) and an interest new for the voodoo (Alfred Métraux). During the last time, going on the ground, it attempted to recognize and develop the culture traditional of the small farmers, since it is necessary to circumventing them sometimes public administrations.
It would not be time to hold the two ends firmly of chains?
Does a news give?
The new fact in Haiti, which authorizes the hope of a play more opened, it is emergence in dotted of a national conscience (and not nationalist or “noirist”), through a still orphan civil opposition of leadership but which known as lends themselves to assume its civic rights and duties, - emergence of which the recent movement known as from the “184” (federating 184 organizations and more, representing very diverse social environments) is it sign most notorious, with the political plan. As is the maintenance (let us say rather: the survival) of bodies of independent information or opinion, radios and newspapers, in the media plan. Or, with the economic plan, rise chambers of commerce more concerned than before of the interest collective, and without blinkers. The stranding of the Messianic hopes placed in “the small priest of the shantytowns” threw discredit upon short cut populist, by dissipating the mirage of a fast solution brought to problems of long life by the grace rédemptrice of a Messiah. He is become clearly for the majority, the question mark of the shantytowns put at leaves, that the expeditious short-circuiting of the civil mediations and institutional by a charismatic personality, he was led to the name humiliated and offended, is the negation of any social contract. Poverty, insecurity, impunity: dispatch worsens the evils which it was supposed to look after.
It is with the concomitant consolidation of an interdependent nation and one Reliable rule of law that French co-operation (in dialog with Canadian, American and the European one), should be able to contribute. Such is the directing wire of the proposals formulated in conclusion. Projects, even local, that we retained, have all value of structuring main road.
What good is it to build roads with the assistance of the BID or the EU if there is not a service of Bridges and Chaussées worthy of this name and one funds of road maintenance envisaged with the budget? What good is it to plan elections, with the OAS, if there is no electoral register, fault of one true civil statue? What good is it to promote a School of magistrature, with a Ministry for Justice in favor? What good is it, in contrary direction, to abound the budget of the State if middle-class of business think that to escape the tax, if there are no local taxes, and if does the tax authority function in charge of the customer? And how BID can it sign agreements of loans if there is no more Parliament to authorize them (as the Constitution requires it)? The civil society has learned that it cannot achieve its goals (to educate, produce, look after, to make business, etc) with a State clientélaire and paternalist; and them policies know that there will be no State Re-distributer failing this responsible civic organizations. As that was done in a way specimen for the organized distribution of drinking water in some shantytowns (300 000 recipients), we could support the need of State which one feels at the bottom of the gullies, when demonstration is made of its need, and to strengthen the State in its role of guarantor of the services public, fulfilling the requirements of survival on the ground (irrigation, electricity, routes transportation). Such would be the screen and the method.
It would not thus be a question more of answering step by step such or such opportunity; nor to draw up catalog of the fields of intervention in waste land, to try to cover them all, by planting its small flag here and there.
Would be retained, even more clearly than in the past, them programs likely to help with the birth of a partner institutional representing the whole of the social layers, through projects, if possible transverse and not-sectoral, that population can adapt itself.
We do not delude. To restore State balance/company for to accelerate the construction of a nation obliges to leave the framework “A&E doctor” of the benevolences rhapsodic and dispersed (in answer, for example, with calls flashes of the United Nations). The “urgent need” should not make law any more. That obliges, more radically still, with not to transform into permanent standard a makeshift of the economic situation: exclusiveness granted by the money-lenders in consequence of retortions economic, in ONG international.
What poses the problem of the “sanctions”, and beyond, of political conditionality of the economic aid.
Not more than the good literature, the good development is not business of finer feelingss. It is with the best intentions than International community, wearies official impérities, removed part of the total assistance by devoting the remainder to the non-governmental sector, for “direct actions with the profit of the population”. ONG thus could cure the failures of the institutions - as much in the defense of the human rights that in health and the co-operation technique, and one could not to enough pay homage them. The admirable ones associations medical, agronomists, nuns, cultural, could see it day, relieving many miseries and resurrecting many hopes (N.C.H.R., oecumenical Center for the Human rights, Justice and Peace, Carli, etc).
However, one can wonder about the long-term range of this already old orthodoxy - fruit of a rather common junction of sensitivities that a a little light historian of the ideas would have fun to describe as follows: anti-totalitarian vulgate (the malicious State against the good company civil) uniting, on bottom of republican optimism (the associative fabric), with thesympathetic one (small structures, local countervailing powers, initiatives citizens) to throw itself in fine in the large river of “universalization liberal”. The Congress of the United States decided into 1981 that the APD had to avoid the organizations of State, not very effective, and to pass by the organizations voluntary and of benevolence. Those, in fact, seem to collect since half of the funds coming from Washington. Haiti, one says, is one hell. It is also the paradise of ONG (the strongest density with km2 of world, say some). There is no correlation between these two reports, but how to hide the perverse effects of hypertrophy? Transforms as providers of quasi single services and employment, vectors of social advancement, the danger is that the great agencies international, liberally equipped by outside, do not come to to aspire the best executives of the country, with levels of incomes superiors with those of the private sector, without speaking of the civil service. Point then, in against bottom of the developers of trade, a mentality of assisted, new bureaucracies, and uneven favoritism. phalanges of experts and international consultants build small State while the national State is gradually tiny room to the role of agency or ONG, less better provided financially. The rise of missions, lobbies and research departments narrows the local life with research not very civic the power for the power. (One would be sometimes tried of to ask elites on-politicized to cure of the policy, while believing a little in their capacities to undertake more and a little less in theirs presidential capacities).
On the basis of a report of observers of the OAS on electoral embezzlements, the European Union applies since January 2001 sanctions deriving from article 96, paragraph II, not C of the Agreement of Cotonou, baptized “appropriate measures”. It imposes to stop, after a time of negotiation, or propriety, assistance direct at the government institutions of a part when it “has missed with an obligation rising from the respect of the Human rights, democratic principles and Rule of law”. But assistance continuous indirect humanitarian, “precisely to prevent that population is not penalized by the recourse to these sanctions”. Our clear conscience is thus safe. And pride. Thus Union convainct- it, well adventurously, 1 to play a political role of point with steps from the Occident, 2 there to accelerate the return to the democracy, 3 of to mitigate the needs for the citizen lambda and, 4 to affirm with the eyes of all its cohesion and its firmness on the principles. Thus France, concerned, like its partners, nothing to make which can develop politically a power with the reprehensible acts was led to “to suspend” many already approved cooperative projects, such one program support with the agricultural professional organizations, “following the deterioration of the political situation”. Compared to which decade considered to be satisfactory? One would like to know when, since 1804, and outwards short period 1994-1996, the Haitian political situation answered with our criteria of normality.
Sterility, in the Haitian case, of the economic punishments for political failures is not any more to show: constitutional vacuum, fixed prices in rise, increased misery of “helped”, illicit enrichment but accelerated “punished”. The goal of the sanctions moves away with marcheurs2. It is the report which made already ONG European them more lucid by addressing to the European ministers Business foreign (collective letter of April 12th, 2002), to be astonished by these hasty” and “inappropriate” measurements “: “The signatories wish with this occasion to recall that the embargo plugs which had been issued continuation with the coup d'etat of September 1991, had catastrophic effects on Haitian company while plunging the majority of the population, including middle-class, in an extreme situation of vulnerability and induced the intolerable installation of a generalized system of illegal economy in country, and overall contributed to the weakening of the values and democratic aspirations in this country” 3.
2 See, as illustration, the report ordered with the GRET (Group of research and of technological exchanges), by the Ministry for the Co-operation in June 1996, by Gerard Barthelemy, Jacques Companion and Christian Oquet, intitule Evaluation on the consequences of the suspension of the co-operation in Haiti.
The medical project or of irrigation which one suspends in one month, it will be necessary two years to take it again. Beside neutral effects and sometimes positive (degreasing of superfluity and substitution of local actors with developers), the perverse effects of the sanctions carry it. Because there is complementarity between local autonomies and administrative framings. Without coordination, the risks of dual employment, wasting increase, inconsistency of the external initiatives. For health, in particular, there is unanimity in the diagnosis: a dialog with the ministries techniques is indispensable4.
3 List of the signatories: AFVP (French association of the Volunteers of Progress); International medical assistance; International odontological assistance; CCFD (Committee catholic for the Hunger and the Development); CEIPAL (Center of Studies international Country-women and of local Actions); Collective Haiti de France; DCC (Catholic Delegation for the Co-operation); Brothers of the Men; GREF (Grouping of the educational Pensioners without borders); Initiative development; IRCOD Alsace; Catholic aid; Laic solidarity; S.O.S Children; UCJGYMCA (Christian union of Young People).
4 That it is Mr. Paul Farmer or Mr. Champetier de Ribes, health project manager of French co-operation of Port-au-Prince (2002-2003): “Redistribution of assistance near the civil society, writing this last, decided by the community international, can be done only with one strengthening of the institutions, positioning the ministry for the Public health and population in its role normative, of control and coordination. The group of the partners in health has it understood well and works more and more in dialog and narrow partnership with the ministry, helping this last to install its strategic tools necessary to a good management of the health system… A good coordination strategic and technique of the partners in health is a need to improve effectiveness of the assistance in this sector”. January-December, management report 2002.
Which good governance to hope of a State in rags? The strategy consisting in emptying the cases to avoid the diversion of funds, as if the weakness of the wages did not maintain corruption, absenteeism and underhand dealings, pass in addition to the assets of the experiment. One knows that there exists “a direct relationship, statistically significant, between income per capita and the level of the rights and political freedoms”; and democracy has of as much less chances to persist than the level of development of a country is weak. To maintain the factors de facto of backwardness to denounce the absence of Rule of law then appears interdependent of a paternalist and naive arrogance, freedom in parachute, according to which elections one day = democracy always… Can there be doesn't democracy where it have there a nation? And can there be nation where remain a patchwork of soils, made to secrete with-inside poverty, selfishness and civic unconsciousness, where it takes 5 hours, on a route exchange, to make 120 kilometers? When a country, including 60% of population lives in rural area, does not cover more itself half of its food needs (the remainder being imported or being given)? When a country, where 8 citizens out of 10, illiterates, alive under the poverty line (of which 6 in a state of absolute poverty), sees its GNP dropping by a quarter into ten years? There was in Europe a healthy market economy, of transparent elections by the vote for all when such were our conditions of existence? The infrastructures of the democracy, they are them roads, schools and electricity, markets, the system of irrigation, the drinking water adduction. These technical networks require a time length; political alternations raise of time runs. To put one fundamental construction, where a month ago to lose (such an amount of are long procedures of implementation), at the mercy of turbulences chronicles, can answer the extremely comprehensible wishes of one civil opposition in a hurry to accelerate the fall, or asphyxiates it, of one unspecified petty tyrant. But this is not to fold back a long calendar, of historical scale, on the calendar short, quite transitory, of the waltz of to be able or even of the U.N. mandates? And to play finally against its camp? Not to give, in the third poorest country of world, with a non-commissioned officer with pledges or one illuminated verbomotor (case of figure among others) pleasure of inaugurating a tarred road in front of photographers, - mean advantage, International community will thus prohibit the peasants from going to sell their mangos or their coffee with borough, with the buses to circulate, the children of going to the school, the patients to reach the health services and the vaccines (59% of the population find at 15 kilometers, two hours on a track of an health care center). When there are roads durably suitable for motor vehicles (with calls offers near the manufacturers knowing to distinguish between less and it highest bidder), let us guarantee that it will be easier to have political parties structured and of authentic electoral campaigns. Dad Doc. and consorts took care well not to improve the interior transportation routes.
It is completely wrongly that the current Haitian mode, which can to trade with which it wants, employs the term of embargo to qualify one simple suspension of the government aid. It proceeds by analogy with embargo economic and financial of 1991, with the remainder approved by partisans of the President in exile. This last did not dismantle a power soldier who finally went only to one higher military force (the embargo can be justified like a stage in a climbing soldier). Two degrees of retortion evoked by the Charter of UNO (article 41) are not to confuse. It does not remain about it less that their implementation ill-considered caused a reflex many times obsidional, increased the level of exactions, and weakened the capacities of response popular. With the remainder, the International community cannot treat an quasi-economy of subsistence, dependant on the outside assistance, like Haiti, on the model of South Africa of apartheid, economy powerful perfectly registered in liberal capitalism (embargo relatively effective, once in a while does no harm, because applied to counterparts of the same edge). In general, they are the classes more disadvantaged which suffers from it more. It would act by no means for the EU to give any full power to lamentable dictatorships nor of to give up its right to watch on the use of the funds of the taxpayer. It is a question for it of choosing, on a case-by-case basis, the way most adapted to one sustainable development of freedoms, without resting on a mechanism under the vague terms, of discretionary application (see Africa) and to effects too often against-productive. If one wants to weigh on leaders to recommend them to change attitude, could not one think of properly political, at the same time realistic and imaginative responses, which the victims but the authors do not injure: suspension of the visits official, empty room in the multilateral enclosures, freezing of the assets personnel of the leaders outside, mandate reinforced for the expert independent of the Commission of the Human rights of UNO, and all other measures to be taken step by step, but blow for blow?
Tracks for a takeoff (economic)
We do not pay words. The departure of President Aristide will not make at once the country more prosperous, nor more productive. The future policy of the Haitians will depend above all on progress economic, and of the Haitians themselves.
Current location of the country
The country is ruined. The GDP decrease year by year (even if them experts do not take into account produces it drug traffic). 70% of the inhabitants live under the poverty line. The gourd depreciate more and more and inflation exceeds 40% in 2003. The debt public reaches levels which make fear a bankruptcy of the State, whereas, in the past, the country had always honoured its signature. More with food self-sufficiency and exports cover only 30% approximately imports. The economy of the country still functions grace with the gifts, with the assistance of many ONG and the transfers of Diaspora which, alone, accounts for 18% of the GDP.
The debt of Haiti, at the end of the year 2000, amounted to 35% of sound The debt GDP and servicing absorbed 8% of the product of exports. Such a situation is bearable as a long time as there is aggravation, as it is the case. The misuse of the funds public can explain this evolution. It is the cause of unpaid of the State with respect to the money-lenders.
Causes of this situation
The economic situation is all at the same time a consequence and one cause impéritie of the governments, more particularly with the course from the 50 last years. And this situation is also the cause of persistence of governments satrapesques or predatory.
Under the terms of the political conditionality of the assistance and non-observance financial liabilities of a government which prefers to invest in the “” or expenditure maintenance of law and order of prestige, the country is private external resources on which it had always counted in passed.
The World Bank which, in 1996, was committed to a total value of 293, 6 USD million, suspended its payments in 2001 following one accumulation of postponed payment. The inter-American Bank of development has just taken again its payments after it Haitian government regulated its arrears, but the situation risks new to be blocked because of absence of a Parliament regularly elected and whose presence is, under the Constitution, necessary for the approval of the trust deeds.
For the period 1989-1994, more than 74% of exports Haitian were directed towards the United States of America and 60% of imports came from this country. Even if for the imports, it volume starts to decrease with the profit of some other countries of Caribbean, in particular the Dominican Republic (6.8, % of imports in 2003), it is undeniable that the United States will remain for a long time the largest business partner of Haiti. The place France, compared to others, was not always negligible (second partner until 1994 after the United States), without to counterbalance the growing attraction of the US market.
The number of French companies established in Haiti regresses. With the closing of Club Med, only two companies are directly present: TOTAL and Air France, although the latter removed it direct flight connecting Port-au-Prince to Paris and reduces the importance of its representation. Other companies are made represent by agents, Haitian natural people or companies, and are satisfied more often to take part in the adjudications of government contracts.
The transformation which took place in the structure of Haitian exports could be at the origin of the fall of the share relative of exports to France. The agricultural produce is exported with nearly 90% in Europe, in particular in Italy (which received 4,52% of total exports to the OECD countries in 1994,1,82% in 2001) and France (7,88% in 1994 and 1,62% in 2001). However, the share coffee which represents the principal agricultural export of Haiti ceased to decrease since 1987. The fall of the agricultural productivity causes more besides concern in the exporters.
With the fluctuations of world rates, the problems of infrastructure (absence of electric current, irrigation canals), it nonrenewal of the plantations, the use of antiquated methods of culture, scarcity and the high cost of the agricultural inputs, competition unfair on the part of the imports entered in smuggling, country do not manage until now to profit from the advantages which confer to him bilateral agreements and multilateral, like the agreement of Cotonou.
How to leave the dead end?
Many actions, coordinated, are necessary, but all have a cost and it is this economic aspect and to financier that it is necessary initially to stick.
A priority consists in promoting the economy of the rural world who interests two thirds of the population. It should be left sound insulation, of its misery and its ignorance and, with this intention, to contribute with the financing of projects having for characteristics: the respect of lifestyles and of the small private property; the defense of environment; the increase in agricultural production and its valorization; the access to the instruction, professional training and with health; the participation in local democratic management
It is also necessary to develop the economy of the cities overloaded of unemployed coming from a rural depopulation caused by misery. For this purpose, our proposals aim to help the Haitians to invest in industrial activities or commercial profitable and providers employment. Indeed, the saving is too often placed outside country or used in the sectors of consumption or the residences of luxury. Thus, in 2002, the industrial sector and the agricultural sector profited respectively that of 7.2% and 0.1% of the total of incur bank loans, whereas it is on these two sectors only that one can found an internal economic revival of the country.
Nothing will be however possible, for statutory reasons, so much that the question of unpaid due to the French Agency of development is not regulated, in particular its reinstalment in Port-au-Prince with sufficient margins of action. This question supposes either that the State Haitian discharges his obligations towards our Agency, as it has it fact recently with the BID, which is not very probable, that is to say that it French government makes the decision of it.
At the present time, the AFD limits its action in Haiti, with projects of weak amount and except State. Mainly, two projects of fight against the AIDS “Centers Gheskio” and “Zanmi Health”. More recently, the board of trustees of the AFD authorized the granting of a guarantee ARIZ (Country of the Priority area) of an amount of 750,000 euros with institution gathering the actors of the sector of micro finance ACME (Association for the Co-operation with the Microphone-Company) in order to him to allow to raise near an Haitian bank of the resources in local currency and thus to extend the range of its action in favor of “small private”.
With the resumption of the financial supports of the European Union, them actions suggested bearing on education, the civil statue, justice, the police force, etc and which all aim at the emergence of a Nation, support of a Rule of law, would be easier.
The improvement of the physical infrastructures is a condition essential for the growth of the marketing activities. problems encountered on the level of the maritime transport and air are tributaries of the failing or very expensive harbor infrastructures. bad management of the Haitian ports increases the costs considerably harbor expenses, making thus higher the value of the inputs and of imported consumables. This irrefutable fact affects appreciably the competitiveness of the companies of import/export which thus do not manage to compete with companies of comparable nature operating in other countries like Jamaica, the Republic Dominican Venezuela or Panama.
We seems essential in any case, in very first place, rehabilitation of the highway network. In this matter, all is to be made. It network is divided into 608 km of surfaced roads and 2,594 km of roads not covered. The axes served by trunk roads are with many three. The state of the network is very variable, energy of “good” with bad (33%) and “very bad” (46%). The “good” state corresponds in general with sections of ways built or rehabilitated recently. Bad” or “very bad” sections classified as “practicable by cross-country vehicles, are often impracticable in rainy weather. Only 5% of the network currently concern the “good” state (see recommendation n° 17).
School and culture, hand in the hand
It does not belong to France to plate its indigenous models on a rebellious reality, nor to involve itself in the sovereign choice of educational orientations or the drafting of the programs. Even less with through oversize teaching projects, superstructures without foundations, and, which, on the long run, prove to be not-viable, in particular because of the hiatus the treatment of our civils servant enters or co-operators and that of the Haitian personnel or recruited local (source of discomfort and soon of friction). At least should it be recalled that education constitutes the field where our country is awaited the most. It is also that which carries the hope of each Haitian family (the expenditure of families devoted to this heading accounting for 12% of the GDP): mainstay par excellence. Humblest bleed themselves with white to send their small to the school, and for each dollar that the State invests, the families put three or four of them. The State, even if it deals with that 11% of the schools while 89% of the establishments secondary belong to the private sector, devotes 12% of sound weak budget with the Education, which is by tradition (French, if one can to say), with the policy, the stake of all passions and controversies.
Strange country where more the fine scholar is next to the illiterate, like Latin quotation, American pidgin. Seizing contrast, between the culture often aristocratic of a cosmopolitan class, where one often has two passports, and sinks it abandonment of dull and the huts. It us point out this truth that “the democracy of the elites”, where that it is, can to do without any popular promotion. Illiteracy (officially 70% of the population) are, to some extent, a material fate and budgetary, and it is true that to educate an Haitian child is more expensive that to educate a French child, since it should at the same time be transported far of at to nourish his place (often of the hours return ticket to foot), it on the spot (a meal per day), even to look after it. Who says school must thus say road, canteen and drugs. Programmed illiteracy can also concern one more or less conscious strategy. Even if a certain number of foreign partners (African, Maghrebian, Québécois, Belgian, etc) could in the ideal it make easier, and in particular, side French, new “volunteers of the international solidarity”, one literacy campaign to large scales, as carried out some in their time Mexico (60% the illiterate ones in 1917) and Cuba (30% in 1958), require a mobilization of scale, as in 1986, with the Mission Alpha started by the Church, and unfortunately stopped by hierarchy. There is no nation without an in-depth elimination of illiteracy, and there is no elimination of illiteracy, with this degree of destitution and abandonment, without something like a revolution. For the time being, the teacher Haitian, similar with the “black hussar” of our legends, bails out of a role policy of mediator, between the local section and of improbable central administrations. It sometimes happens to him to inherit the mandates of the priest and captain. It is precisely because they are, like the doctor and it judge, the pioneers of progress, that the recruitment and the formation of Masters is a crucial question. The current level of remunerations alas do not facilitate the solution (they should be multiplied by ten, support some, to attract the best).
There, on the other hand, where the French must demolish his memories republicans, it is in front of the flowering of private establishments (75% of the educational offer) pulled by the degradation of the public system, multi-coloured assembly of universities, schools and heteroclite institutes. This disparate, which lately took forms of bazaar to the auction and without official control no (no matter who, in the absence of inspector, being able, to be done a little under, to open in a shantytown a school “Simone de Beauvoir” or “Michel de Montaigne”) could not hide it central role that played, since the Legal settlement of 1860, them religious congregations of origin French (and Breton) in transmission of the language and knowledge: spiritains, salésiens, brothers and sisters of Saint-Jacob, Holy Rose of Lima and Saint Louis of Gonzague. Though growing old and thinned down, it would be detrimental for France, in the name of one does not know which laic prudery and within sight of our own obligations (wages, statute, career of our expatriates), of not to help, materially if it is needed, these communities of voluntary with rare devotion. So in Haiti of many intellectuals or policies are former seminarists, especially when they are “opinions advanced”, it is with this secular presence that we must.
*** We do not have to take part officially, it seems, in acrimoniously arguments which have proceeded for one century on the choice of the language of teaching, always thorny question. Like underline, Leon François Hoffmann, specialist in the Haitian culture (Princeton, the USA): “It is obvious that the same course could not be applied to the more or less French-speaking children of the aristocracy and of urban middle-classes and with those, only créolophones, of peasants and of the Lumpenproletariat. The ideal remains that the children, of the schools public and deprived, the two official languages dominate at the end of studies republic”. It is clearly in any case that French does not have future without, and even less against, the Creole, who is the language of the life daily, spoken by all the population. Bilingualism was adopted by the Constitution of 1987, largely ratified by the people, in pledge of personal dignity; and French could not play a federator part between regional dialects, as it was the case in France since Revolution, because the national unit, in Haiti, is sealed in and by this original language, which one could not reduce to a patois and a dialect. But the Creole cannot give access to the international relations, with the data universal knowledge nor with the culture of the Rule of law. It is why, if education in Haiti wants to be other thing that one training of the seclusion (creole only) or an ethnocide institutional (the French whole), the two languages are destined for to cohabit, while shouldering itself.
Some estimate that the lower school (in public Education, the school starts at six years, but in the countryside, rather to nine), must to start in Creole, who gives a certain self-confidence, with the risk to make difficult the passage to French, foreign language. Passage which require the training of qualified Masters and of which it would be illusion to charge people not-trained for this purpose. Others, like the admirable one college Alcibiade Pommayrac de Jacmel, accommodate the créolophones and start in French as of the nursery school. Let us notice in any case that the French request also comes from the poorest parents, for who the Creole would be synonymous with social exclusion. Frequentation in raise of the six Alliance françaises, distributed through the country, testifies that this feeling is not only the fact of the higher classes. One must be pleased, on this point, to have seen our network recently re-equipped and revalorized (as one must also take care of the safety of directors and directors, in particular in the Cape and Gonaïves, particularly exposed).
The university Agency of the francophonie, with limited means, develop a remarkable numerical campus, and it is not its fact, but because of a lack of guarantee of the Haitian authorities that sound Training institute with management could not find a habitat decent. Other efforts will have to be made, with the assistance of Europeans and the vast one French-speaking club, to balance the law of gravity. There is the large one neighbor, the language of the business and televisions, and costs prohibitory of Air France, in situation of monopoly on the way Guadeloupe/Haiti (one goes to Miami for much less expensive). On about thirty chains TV accessible, two only are French-speaking. There is already more Haitians, in the world, able “to function” in English that in French (of the bank manager to sweeping of street). The francophonie does not have pas l' eternity in front of it. For how much generations still?
***In Port-au-Prince, the college in the past Georges Duhamel, today Alexandre Dumas (660 pupils), approved and supported by state education, maintains as much best the flame than it gives access to the French university system. Its recruitment is very selective because of the tariffs of schooling and the number of place limited (he refuses two thousand candidates per annum). Ask was made to us of a second college, less demanding as for the level, in particular for the pupils of the mediums rural. Founded in 1976 and financed by Mrs. Veronique Rossillon, with one discrete assistance of the State French (an international volunteer and two purses), establishment of Haitian right “Alcibiade de Pommayrac”, one tradesman-poet of the 19th century, accommodates most underprivileged, on examination of entry, the nursery school to the baccalaureat (720 pupils). He is out-standard, and its results are exceptional. But it would be very difficult to reproduce it elsewhere, according to our administrative guns and fault of local support. In all the cases, the problem arising is that of the follow-up that one can offer to our graduates. The majority will continue their studies in the United States and Canada, accessible host countries, where much has already of the family. Force is to note that there are only 857 students Haitians in our universities (percentage in light rise), and that it many stock-brokers from the government, 146 in 2002, are in regression. Can the action of the FSD (16 purses of training in agronomy and veterinary medicine), as well as various projects FSP (36 purses for hospital frameworks of health and) and support to education (71 purses) to be maintained and develop.
The geographical proximity consolidates the intellectual proximity. Even if, from their statute, the French Departments of America are naturally turned towards the metropolis, they is obvious within the framework of a renewed and reconsidered regional co-operation, in the zone The Antilles/Guyana, that the footbridges should multiply (see recommendation n° 12). They already exist with a co-operation in ancillary medical field, in organic farming, and of the assistances to such local government agency. The will was clearly posted of it by the University The Antilles/Guyana, in its current four-year contract (credit line for the regional exchanges).
In spite of the legitimate preventions due to the migratory flux, one easing of the rules of obtaining the visa for the students nonboursiers would be to wish. The Departments of Americas grant already purses with some selected Haitian students. establishments could allow them, after validation of the assets by an in-house commission and aimed at culture section (French test), to integrate the preparatory classes into the universities of Point-with-Clown and Fort-de-France. In the same way the University the Antilles/Guyana could it to continue to identify possible teachers, to still better cooperate with the National university of Port-au-Prince, one of components of the University of State of Haiti, without going for the moment to the double diploma (like Bordeaux with the University does it pontifical of Santo Domingo). The ideal, in this respect, would be a contract of return to the country, between the recipient and the French authorities and Haitian. The question being always of knowing if assistance with the formation must always balance itself in fine by a reinforcement of the capacities étatsuniennes, Canadian or French: there are more Haitian doctors exerting in New York, and Haitian psychiatrists exerting in Montreal, that in any Haiti. Because as long as the graduates will not have to get busy in their country, one will see, at the same time as the them and laborers unemployed to illegally gain Santo Domingo or departments French, - technicians and academics, to settle, well-established, in Florida and in Quebec.
*** The countries, that misfortune educates and that the shortage strangles, take sometimes an existential revenge on the tragedy in the order of the spirit and the imaginary one. The Haitian originality is not any more to show: artists, writers, musicians, scenario writers make even the desire of the adjoining countries. It is undoubtedly in these trimmings, already amply known (“only people of painters” said Malraux), that the report of equal footing should tie it more easily. A good sign, under this aspect, even if it does not concern that the cultural actors themselves, is the idea of a pact free-Haitian who was submitted to us to Port-au-Prince by a group of one hundred sixty intellectuals and artists, among most representative. Time came for the public collections and the Museums of contemporary art of our country to accommodate finally, with the height which is appropriate, plastic creators from Haiti. As for the writers, musicians, professors, it would be well it less, that they find in our country, but also to remain in Europe, in Belgium and Switzerland, as warm welcome as in North America. The institutions of the international francophonie should take care of it.
1. Re-examination of the European sanctions. Within the framework of the Union, a step can be suggested near five friendly countries, relatively comparable with ours by their role and them presence, old and current, in the Antille-Caribbean area: Large Brittany, Sweden, Netherlands, Spain, and even Portugal.
European Union, in December 2003 (Coreper, then the Council), having renewed for one year measurements of economic sanction and financial towards Haiti, with, this time (and on French proposal within group ACP), re-examination of the question at the end of six months, pourraiton to make profitable this time for launching with these countries an initiative collective aiming at renegotiating with the Haitian government a releasing of the assistance? That realizing of strict procedures of countable management, as there already are some for the credit control assigned to the fight against the AIDS in Haiti, by the “Funds total”, created in 2002 on the initiative of Kofi Annan.
With the question, inevitable, precedent thus created, and of which could to prevail of other countries offenders falling under the blow from article 96 from the agreement of Cotonou, it could be answered that situation exceptional, exceptional measure. The bicentenary of Haiti and it character of the year 2004 placed under the sign of the commemoration of fights against slavery and of its various abolitions, would be likely to to legitimate a particular gesture of Europe, taking into consideration responsibility inherited its past, and why not in echo with the resolutions of Durban (UNO, 2001).
2. Dialog with the United States.
Many imagines a competition where there is in fact complementarity, and if our means of influence are not recut, they can and must to be added, for the good of the Haitian nation. It would belong peutêtre with the President of the Republic, in any case with the Minister for the Business Foreign, to fix outset, on the best level, methods and the spirit of this combinative.
A more marked French implication in Haiti would not know indeed to be exerted against the interests of the United States, but in a spirit of balance and precaution. Undoubtedly, the practice helping, will seek-T one to melt us, even press-gang, in exchanges of courtesy between services, within frameworks a little too tested. This lazes, if it is one, would ruin the chances of a coordination without subordination, but daring and solved.
The latter does not seem impossible for several reasons:
a) The current discredit of the Organization of the American States, of its Mission on the spot like its routine ones and sterile shuttles. Admittedly she will survive to them, but one could not neglect the image that she gives, in the area, of a “American Ministry of the Colonies”, wait and see advocator and without true room for maneuver. UNO, less reached, seems a framework with time more operational and more legitimate, but it is not very probable that it General secretary, or the Safety advice wish to seize again itself file whose OAS lightened it. The question would however deserve to be posed.
b) Comprehensible embarrassment of Washington vis-a-vis a situation noxious, but imperceptible. If the United States, scalded by their excursion of 1994, conscious of a possible chaos in the streets like feelings always sharp anti-American at the bottom of the hearts, seek to save time, of fear of starting in the area one unverifiable crisis and for them inopportune (boat-people, Black Caucus, etc) they are, like the others, in search of ideas and of means for a honourable way out of crisis.
c) a will shared to avoid a rise to the extremes, the risk to disappoint the ones, which perhaps suppose their capacities mobilizing and to force the others, which post a design schizophrenic of legality (the mandate until 2006, yes; the respect life, not). However, if no effort of mediation must be given up (especially if he is united, between churches catholic and Protestant women), the damming up from day to day of violence is not solution.
d) The presence in Port-au-Prince of a French ambassador of more able and of an American ambassador of quality, French-speaking person to the spirit opened and imaginative.
3. Setting under investigation of a force of peace with Canada and Caricom.
With its new Prime Minister, Canada should continue to appear in the foreground of this preventive medication of crisis, because it is, between the “friendly countries of Haiti”, that to which we are closest, by the spirit, the language and the hegemonic absence of ambition.
Apart from desirable convergences in the culture and education, it is a field where Canada acquired an invaluable experiment: safety. Let us recall that the component of civil police force of the Mission of The United Nations, in Haiti (Minuha, 1995/96) was under Canadian command. France had 95 men there. It is well little, taking into consideration French manpower in Afghanistan (400), and in Kosovo (4000), country with which we however do not maintain bond privileged history.
The question of a multinational police force to dominant French-speaking person is likely to rest shortly, that is to say in logic resolution 822 of the OAS, is to answer the call of a future transition government confronted with serious disorders. It would be to anticipate the danger to imagine the parades. France could in to take the initiative with its partners, the OAS, but also with Caricom (in the person of the Prime Minister jamaïcain Patterson, serving chairman) lends to invest himself in such a force. Would be then examined concert, in an abstract work group, the assessment of the U.N. experiment 94-96 and lesson to be drawn some, sources of financing possible, with which request to require to answer, nature mandate (OAS, UNO, or ad hoc), possible limits of engagement (and thus of the average necessary soldiers), and especially the objective precise policy (determining the starting conditions).
Such an intervention on the ground, if it had suddenly been the subject of one request in due form is by the legitimate authorities of Haiti maybe by UNO, should be to frame and form a force of national police, as well rural as urban. The disarmament of certain districts could not be carried out by a foreign personnel, which should be used that as force of support, in an ideal report from one to three. Only way of escaping the dilemma: what is temporary is inoperative; what is prolonged is unbearable. So that a force of interposition is effective, proof was made a contrario, in the years 90, qu ' it must be prolonged in time. But then it becomes one occupation. And one knows what it causes a little everywhere…
4. THE OIF: a desirable mediation.
Without replacing the OAS, the International organization of Francophonie would have a political role to play (taking into account, inter alia, latent will of President Aristide to play Africa against occident). At the time of the next Standing Committee of francophonie (March 2004), Mr. Abdou Diouf could thus seize case Haitian, as that was done for the Comoros and the Ivory Coast, in setting up, if he considers it necessary, an ad hoc committee. A voyage to Port-au-Prince of President Diouf, in liaison with president Aristide and the representatives of the opposition, would have only advantages, especially if it were carried out after prior cooperation with President Mbeki and them South-African authorities. The latter already expressed sharp personal engagement towards a country-symbol in their eyes, and this, in a true spirit of friendship with France.
Without over-estimating it, mediation of several eminent personages African, in this American country which is often claimed of Africa black, would have positive repercussions on the current dead end.
5. France - Germany.
France being, in this space French-speaking, placed better than others to catalyze the efforts of the European Union, undoubtedly it would be interest of the Haitians themselves to see combining itself on place resources and personnel of large European countries. One consultation on this point, between Paris and Berlin, would be worth the sorrow, because one cannot prevent oneself from thinking of the advantages, not only symbolic systems, what would represent the opening to Port-au-Prince of a diplomatic mission commune in France and the Federal Republic of Germany, to which would make naturally during, on the other side of the Atlantic, the opening of a German-French mission for example with Windhoek, Namibia, or elsewhere. Thus linguistic affinities and heritages would balance respective histories. Let us specify that our ambassador in Haiti, Thierry Burkard, is being a perfect Germanist.
As regards a project parallel in Botswana and in Mongolia, the Council of State an negative opinion (April 27th, 1989) returned, though simply advisory, with the reason which a foreigner cannot be named in the capacity as diplomatic mission leader, the President of the Republic having only it to be able to accredit the ambassadors near the foreign powers. Without wanting to deny the difficulty of constitutional nature holding with conditions of exercise of national sovereignty, let us notice that in it case, the mission leader, French in Haiti, German in such other country, would not be another nationality that authority giving him instruction, after prior cooperation, upstream, of the two ministers. It would be necessary for it undoubtedly an agreement made between the two governments, with ratification authorized by the Parliament.
The always thorny question of the double allegiance did not prevent in its time the creation of a Franco-German brigade. If the idea of one embassy here Franco-German or there German-French appears moved or premature, perhaps would be advisable it to evoke, with our German friends, formulas more modest: Common office, Delegation interests, if not joint Representation.
6. Reinforcement of our Embassy.
• In the short run, it appears desirable that our Embassy, already overloaded, way its means as personnel reinforced - with an agent of category A for example to gain of visibility and resonance. It could result from this a more fluid and reactive communication between Paris and posts it, in spite of the two obstacles of the jet lag and of obligation made at the station refer about it to Paris for any declaration public.
• The creole language being of everyday usage, and official, it appears judicious to develop the practice of it. Agents named in the different ones French services in Haiti (Embassy, French Institute…) could to be incited as of before their departure in station, or if not on the spot, with to learn the Creole, principal average of contact with the deep country. • Lastly, francophile feelings of Santo Domingo, sound advanced development, prospects for regional integration, and them common problems that have to manage Haiti and the Dominican Republic, where live about a million Haitians, invite to a direct dialog more nourished between our two Embassies of Port-au-Prince and Saint Domingue. One or two annual meetings between the mission leaders would perhaps not be futile. Only let us forget also different that they, and because are precisely opposed, two parts of territory understand really only one by the other.
B. Rule of law/Institutions
7. To diversify the co-operation Justice.
It would be important to currently find a successor with the Magistrate detached, whose mission must fall due soon, since it is necessary to widening its order of mission.
Even if one cannot confine oneself there, should not be left with the abandonment:
• The School of the magistrature
Created on the initiative of France in 1995 (FSD, title 6), the School of Magistrature already trained five hundred judges. It runs up against recruitments except die-school by the Ministry for Justice (only a dozen the twenty five pupils of the last left promotion since more than one year was named).
At one moment when the EMMA intends to widen her missions of formation with the whole of the sector Justice while becoming “Training center with legal careers”, continuation of the effort of legal cooperation audelà of its term envisaged (August 2004) would allow to surmount this period of uncertainties so that can be approached this second and important stage, while capitalizing independence incipient from the body.
• The Mortuary (IML)
In all the countries of violence, legal medicine plays a crucial role in the administration of the proof, and consequently in the fight against impunity, in the middle of about a day. Thanks to the co-operation, one program allowed on the one hand to build an Institute of medicine legal extremely well equipped, and in addition, to train two pathologists, high level trainers, who studied in France during two years. This Institute is currently disputed by the nomination of one police superintendent, in addition responsible for the laboratory of police force scientist, at the position of director. Taking into account the invested sums by our Ministry for the Interior (a million francs), France would have by the intermediary, if necessary, of a personality of the medical world, to help to resolve the situation.
• A legal twinning
Within the framework of a bearing official program creation of three “pilot courts”, the court of Jacmel, peaceful city of the Haitian South, was characterized by significant progresses, thanks to the initiative of local magistrates more than by the promised assistance of the Ministry for Justice, who never came.
An open exchange of experiments and visits with a French court of average importance could create an domino effect. One think in particular of the Guadeloupe (where Mrs. Saada, adviser at the Court of call, worked with the launching of the School of the Haitian magistrature).
8. Opening of an office of the High commissionership with Human rights.
Mr. Louis Joinet, special protractor of UNO on the situation of the Rights of the Man in Haiti, having proposed, in April 2003, at the Commission of Human rights of the United Nations, the opening of an Office Top Police chief in Port-au-Prince, as there are some in certain many countries in crisis, the Haitian Government gave its agreement of principle. On these entrefaites, France ensured the launching of this initiative (contribution of 123,000 euros), intended in priority for the support magistrates in difficulty and with the assistance with the victims (data bank on the summary executions and disappearances).
Under these conditions, France could require of the High commissionership to activate the process of establishment and the collection of the others voluntary contributions with the permanent operation of this Office, whose opening should coincide with the sixtieth session of Commission of the Human rights, in March 2004, in Geneva.
9. To repair an exaction.
Confusion on December 5th spent, by armed bands, Faculty of Social sciences and of a contiguous National institute of Administration has traumatized the Haitian company (“black Friday”). The vice-chancellor was seriously wounded. France could announce officially and without to delay that it takes responsibility for its repair of the material damage (computers, photocopiers, vehicles) and the rehabilitation of the places (doors, partitions, furniture, etc). This action of support - around 100,000 euros would have more range than others. Taking into account the topicality, and of the symbolic system, could be required of the AFD of to partially reorientate in this direction its action health, which is one contribution to multilateral plans and provided already rather well. If its directives did not allow it to him (Faculty is integral part of the University of State), it would then be necessary to seek these modest appropriations in tally of the Solidarity funds priority.
10. Upgrade of the civil statue.
In a recent investigation, population of a shantytown of Port-with Prince affirmed that the birth certificate avoided feeling “like one refugee in his own country”. Between 40 and 60% of the population would not be registered with the civil statue, or would be it in an irregular way. Close to half of the Haitians would thus not have the right to have rights.
There is no electoral register, therefore of election and voter registration cards credible, without register of civil statue. The absence of centralized service has for defects: uninsured exemption from payment; absence of cover in the zones rural; inscription per thirds interposed, outcome with errors on filiation, the name of the person or the date of the fact; disparate and improvisation of the officers of civil statue; materials lack of means (registers, seals or forms); risks of the phonetic transcription in French and in Creole who makes the orthography variable for two members of the same family. These registers raise moreover files main roads, and thus of the Ministry for the Culture.
The Haitian Government did of this problem one of its priorities. If it in expressed the wish, offer could be made collaborate in the setting on foot of a homogeneous service, with systematic recording of births and regularization of the young people and not registered adults. Let us note that the Inter-American Bank of Development (BID) prepared a project of financing in this respect.
Being based on these popular motivations, the examination of this case very private individual could be integrated in the mobilizing program (concerning several countries) “civil statue” launched by the Head office international cooperation. What would imply to entrust initially identification of the adults at a specialized company like Thalès or Sagem. Then, to ensure the follow-up of the electoral registers, with, finally, installation of a reliable registry office.
The whole of the population would profit thus from documents of identity bilingual (Creole, French), and thus of voter registration cards.
11. To prolong the project Organizes.
Through a Police commander, and others, France cooperates since 1997 with the Haitian judicial police (central criminal file, brigades of investigation, etc), within the framework of a project FSP (Funds of priority solidarity). This project complementary to the assistance to Justice, supposed to finish at the end of 2003, seems, in spite them appearances, duty to be resolutely prolonged and even wide with a vaster training program.
With the direction of the national police force, as well legal as administrative, it there has qualified and well trained young people, without relationship with the forces special of repression and armed bands (“attached” and “dreams”). Departmental managements are alas ultra-partisanes.
In a country whose system juridico-police officer remains of inspiration Frenchwoman (Civil code, penal, of criminal procedure), to help patiently with the rebuilding of a national police force, which still does not have a statute, is an advantageous engagement with all. It is important to work with “actors of the future”, and to train persons in charge of which much, today drawn aside, will emerge when the local climate changes.
12. French West Indies: platform of solidarity
Could be asked the Home secretary, in agreement with the Overseas, to invest the Prefect of the Guadeloupe, Mr. Dominique Vian, who is there loan, of a special mission to carry out jointly with the town councilors from the three department of America: to renew basically co-operation known as decentralized or regional, at the same time in its infrastructures and in its ambitions.
For commendable that are the efforts made up to now by communities, this dusty condition of microphone-projects remains very in on this side our capacities of projection, because, not having a central concept, this co-operation does not have visibility. Areas known as ultra-peripherals, equipped with one increased responsibility, should be seen, and be seen in the area, like an active and immediately operational center: the peaceful carry-plane of French and European solidarity.
The adjoining countries have their requests. Assemblies and prefectures the budgets and personnel have (DDE, university hospital, DAS, etc). Vice-chancellorships also - 12 300 civils servant of State only in Guadeloupe, tank under-utilized of human and technical capacities. Remain with mutualiser these know-how available, each element of the puzzle bringing its own resources.
The purpose of this “task-force” would be in particular of: 1 To build the instruments administrative (State/area/ department in the troika) and budgetary of this ambition (for example for the AFD, a true Caribbean Direction). 2 To find, with envelope equalize, suitable financial montages, by harmonizing the means Europeans with our own instruments of intervention (FCR, FCD). 3 To found, for the civils servant of the rights to leave of solidarity (like it there in formation has), for voluntary missions in Haiti or elsewhere of short duration (with assumption of responsibility of the travelling expenses). To transform the regiments of military service adapted (one by department) in formation and reception center for trainees of area.
This opened platform, with centralized counter and more conspicuous window, where the Guadeloupe would be used as head of file for reasons of proximity, the direct and permanent interlocutor of our Mission would constitute of co-operation in Port-au-Prince. It would have also with task to answer with the needs for Co-development expressed by immediate neighbors like the Dominique, principal turntable of the immigrants clandestine in the living conditions infra-human, and St Lucia.
This Co-development bordering is necessary if one wants to limit the costs induced in our departments (hospital, schools, social security, delinquency, etc) by this illicit traffic of human beings.
13. For a better legibility of the French policy in the Caribbean.
_____________________________________________--______ To improve the prior cooperation with the day before of the meetings international to which must take part the executives of the three
French departments of America (primarily those of the Association of the States of Caribbean), seems a legitimate step. This participation of proximity, relaying the political action on the level
suitable, is desirable because these international meetings gather elected powers, and she answers at the request of a basin with coloring mainly Anglo-Saxon but where France enjoys, through its departments, of an unquestionable audience. The three District councils, which can easily get along for a revolving representation, claim moreover a single Parisian interlocutor. Five ministries have indeed competence on the area: foreign affairs, Co-operation and the francophonie (delegated minister), Overseas, interior and Sea.
Since two systems are juxtaposed here while being unaware of rather largely, that of the reports of State to State and that of the reports of co-operation decentralized, connecting communities concerned with the Interior with interetatic entities or mini States concerned with the Business foreign, it can result a certain jamming or fog from it (not from clear policy because too many policies).
Beyond of interdepartmental always problematic, perhaps the platform technique in the DFA would call it in Paris a platform equivalent in more political matter, under the aegis of Foreign affairs (which is, let us recall, represented it in the D.O.M. by the Prefect). It exist in dotted line. To reinforce would be happy.
14. Decentralized co-operation: for one day of synthesis
In a country burst at the small autonomous town communities, accustomed to deprive of State, and even deprived elected mayors, it twinning of commune with commune is more convenient, even if it has known up to now many vexations. Only four experiments with it day (Haute-Savoie/Commercial Dessalines; Suresnes/Le Cape; Strasbourg/Jacmel and Cavaillon/Cavaillon) were tried with participation of “Linked Cities”, and helps it of the Funds of support for initiatives in decentralized co-operation (FICOD). Other cities, more often, because of their particular history, organize in 2004 with through all France of many artistic events and cultural: Nantes, Bordeaux, Villers-Cotterêts…
Such a movement should not remain without a future. Under the aegis of the Association of the mayors of France, with the technical support of “Cities Linked”, ONG and other interested organizations (Voluntary of Progress - Permanent secretariat of the Joint Committees) the Town of Nantes, pionnière in this field, could organize one day of confrontation and of assessment of these experiments. It would make it possible to bring one following these actions, and to extend the network of the partners, in request of technical accompaniment and international opening.
15. An investment fund special for private partnerships.
Because in particular of the proximity of the large American northern market (ALENA) and of the preferential access from which the companies will profit established in Haiti taking into account its statute of LDC, possibilities of partnership between the French and Haitian private sectors are not negligible. Moreover, the achievements in these sectors will generate other related actions of shared interest (as example, let us mention the initiative in the course of TOTAL, which, in the fight against deforestation, implements a project of equipment in cookers functioning with gas, the profit of the microphone-restaurants of street).
The field of what one could call of the “partners projects” is vast: the privatization of the airports (CCI of Toulouse and Cayenne); privatization of the ports and airports (Total, Airports of Paris, SOFREAVIA, Air France); the privatization of telecommunications (Alcatel/Gentel, Orange); the privatization of electricity (EDF); privatization of water (GRET).
After an closer examination of the various partners whom the sector offered deprived, without excluding whoever, it is advisable to privilege the Room of Trade Free-Haitian which gathers contractors and bankers. This Room has the will to also work with the French departments from America, within the framework of the regional co-operation. It is with it grouping of French-speaking businessmen who it will be appropriate to examine the projects and to decide on their feasibility. It would be the role of the AFD in Haiti to coordinate the unit.
Taking into account the cost of the loans granted in Haiti in the private sector, it appears necessary to find a solution adapted: the creation of one funds special, able to grant long-term loans torates of interest reasonable, although the refunding of the lent capital is not not necessary.
This funds would receive an initial equipment, of public origin and possibly deprived, released as launching of the projects selected. Its resources could be multiplied thanks to their placement counts sequestration in obligations (standard OAT) has expiry from twenty or thirty years (see appendix).
Consequently, appear desirable, on the one hand the establishment, with Port-au-Prince, of an agency of French bank - which makes today defect and in addition, a possible return of the offices of the AFD to Portau- Prince, currently delocalized in Saint-Domingue (regional office).
The participation of France in the economic development of Haiti require, indeed, the releasing of the bolt “unpaid” (11 million euros), given that which there can be a margin of time between decision of principle and an effective application. Only a decision French policy could raise this handicap, if the rare occasion of bicentenary was considered to be sufficient for an exceptional gesture.
16. To support Pandiassou.
The rural development program of Pandiassou was set up by the “Little brothers of the Incarnation”, with the costs of operation reduced clean with a religious congregation.
This integral development program, initiate and led by peasants themselves, understands various achievements right now with number of which appear: the afforestation of the grounds and the construction of lakes collinaires - which retain in hollows of hills water of rain season and allow a permanent irrigation, like one activity of pisciculture; agricultural cooperatives which allow to share means of production and distribution; centers of nutrition which meet the emergency needs for children from 0 to 5 years; schools whose majority comprise one program bilingual education (French-Creole) and a teaching adapted professional; a small hospital arranged for the zone…
The moment seems has just carried out the assembly of similar projects, either in the form of direct financings, or in partnership with French organizations specialized in the fields of the agriculture and of rurality (Chambers of Agriculture, Crédit Agricole, Trade unions professionals…). Among these projects, the realization of thirty lakes collinaires in the area was the subject of a study intended for the Agency Frenchwoman of development (AFD), which could retain it like priority. The budget corresponding would be of 2.5 million euros, under form gifts, to distribute over three years (see appendix).
17. To revitalize the central plate by small mechanics agricultural.
The area of the Central Plate whose chief town is the town of Hinche, with approximately 100 kilometers north of Port-au-Prince, east today completely under-equipped. The project of revitalization by mechanics, put to the point by our Service of Co-operation of the embassy, aims to to support rural development in partnership with organizations country-women, at the same time as with the Ministry for Agriculture (local representative). Being based on technical skills existing, the project consists in putting at the disposal of peasants of more powerful and better maintained farm equipments.
It is mainly the setting in network of five workshops of mechanics in five different places, intended for the manufacture of mills with cane, like with the maintenance and the repair of farm equipments, such as bulldozers, tractors, hydraulic pumps etc Material intended for work of agricultural engineering (lakes collinaires) and with a small mechanization of agriculture, taking into account the privileged nature of the cultivable grounds. Estimated at 710,000 euros, it is the example even project which the AFD could support.
18. A new road of the friendship.
The development of the Central Plate results in recommending realization of the road Port-au-Prince, Hinche, Cape-Haitian. (RN 3). alignment road exists, the most important bridges too. It remains with to remake base and the coating. The cost of the project should be of the order of 100 million euros. An expenditure of this nature had been approved by the European Union (45 million euros, following the committee of the EDF joined together in October 2003) and of the BID, the budget of each one of these institutions taking instructs part of the course with it. But the freezing of the government aid blocked any projection on the matter. France could to be characterized by an intervention supported in this direction, in the condition express which a bottom of road maintenance is henceforth provided in the plan room. If it appeared, within a reasonable delay, that the government Haitian cannot guarantee a service of regular maintenance, it would be wise of to expect that the funds can be allocated with programs of roadway system or of urban cleansing, advantageous with the populations.
The road “Port-au-Prince/Hinche/Port of Peace” could be called, as at one time the “road of the friendship” linking Port-au-Prince with Jacmel, the “road of the Bicentenary”. If the releasing of the multilateral assistance could be carried out, it would remain in France to propose a financing bilateral and under these conditions the RN 3 would become the “Francohaïtienne ”, thus reflecting the revival of the relations between the two countries.
19 To rebuild the French Institute.
Created in 1945, on the site known as of the Bicentenary (of the foundation of Port-with Prince), with the bottom of the city, French state-owned property since 1949, the French Institute always was more than one center of course (1500 pupils by session) of conferences and spectacles: the symbol of the life cultural Haitian as well as a historical hearth of resistance, by which a good amount of personalities of the country passed.
A procedure of rebuilding had been launched in 1997 (the handing-over in state of old costing also expensive). The process was abandoned in 2002, with the profit of a bursting on three distinct establishments in city, for judicious reasons, but that the experiment of both last years, of the opinion of all (and initially of its person in charge) does not have unfortunately not confirmed. Expenses of maintenance and guarding excessive (security agents twenty-four hour out of twenty-four in three places); exorbitant costs of the spectacles on a site of loan badly equipped; deficit of visibility; threats on the data bases; etc solution of waiting then selected does not seem conclusive.
These elements authorize, it seems, to give following the project of rebuilding at one time presented by the station, and approved by the General inspection (at the beginning of 2002): return to a single site, possibly on the old site, if security conditions improve. The annual budget of operation would be equivalent to the expenses today agreed each year (450 000 euros), while the setting on sale alternative sites returned, added to the savings in rent, would relieve of as much the costs of a new simplified architectural project (around 4 Mr. of euros).
This last could be carried out by stages or modules, in order to adapt with the announced rehabilitations of a district become difficult, but always with the immediate vicinity of the Embassy of the United States, of Ministry for Foreign Affairs and of the Chamber of commerce.
In addition to its practical interest, the political scope and symbolic system of one decision going in this direction, bet optimistic on the future, is to be considered. It would be appropriate in this case to ensure a regional vocation this institute which should also promote the Haitian culture (possible access to other financings).
20. To supplement our school handbooks. The Minister for Youth, State education and Research could ask to the National council Programs (CNP) of to better take into account colonization and the decolonization, and in particular related questions with the Draft négrière, slavery and with its releases, in the various rewritings in the course of the programs of history of the college and college. A face too would be thus better enlightened ignored history of the Human rights and the Citizen. This step could lie within the scope of the follow-up of the law Taubira and in particular of the “Committee for the memory of the slavery”, chaired by Maryse Condé and recently positioned back by the Minister of In addition to Sea.
This work would testify to our consideration for the bicentenary Haitian (who is also that of the birth of Victor Schoelcher) all in concerning more largely the French Departments of America, Africa and Reunion.
21. To extend the educational welfare.
The Funds of a company of Solidarity (DGCID) feeds since 1998 a plan of support to the primary and fundamental Education, which must stop in August 2004. It took itself the relay of a foreground (1995-1998, 8 million francs).
This program of support to education in Haiti (PAEH) aims at principal to give its support for the training center of the School Fundamental, with the restoration of the French programs, of mathematics and of physics as with text-tallies of formation and of programs detailed concerning the disciplinary formation and professional of the teachers. In its more targeted actions, the PAEH give its support for the training of the French teachers and of mathematics of the ENS in a program whose successes are undeniable.
In the event of a positive evaluation carried out by experts, there would be favors, we believe, to ensure the renewal of it. This plan carried out in harmonize with the European program PARQE and the Ministry of the State education of Youth and the Sports in Haiti, and them principal partners in the educational field in Haiti, answers the most urgent needs for fundamental teaching.
• Could be launched a general inventory of the Amerindian inheritance (The Caribbean), with its influences on the contemporary creole companies. After its famous exposure of 1994, “the art of the sculptors taïnos”, France is not most badly placed for a trans-West-Indian exploration of this kind, of anthropological interest, political and artistic, and to which would contribute, in the highest degree, the countries concerned. This research could emerge, with the assistance of Mr. André Delpuech, conservative of inheritance and under the aegis of Mr. Stephan Martin, on an exposure temporary with the Museum of the Branly Quay, shortly after the unveiling in January 2006.
• Before this date, it would be happy which in Paris one can be held exposure inspired by what was done in Nantes, with Yvon Chotard (Mayor-assistant of Nantes, in charge of the Foreign affairs and with Tourism). “Rings of the memory” (1994), bearing on the history slavery, then attracted 400,000 visitors. After the evocations of the slave period, it would show the meeting again of today, with through drive out-crossed France/Haiti, with Breton, Malraux and Césaire. Jean-Marie Drot could be the police chief about it.
These exposures could travel (French West Indies, Saint-Domingue, etc).
23. The bipartite Council and Mabille Price.
In the short term the cultural Council free-Haitian could be created, consultative body meeting once the year sometimes in Port-au-Prince sometimes in Paris, composed of five people on both sides.
For Haiti: Michele Went up (widowed of the large assassinated journalist, Jean Dominique); Jean-Claude Bajeux (Human rights, former minister culture); Raoul Peck (scenario writer); Gary Victor (literature); and the father director of Saint Louis of Gonzague (Clergy/Education).
For France: Jean-Marie Drot (visual arts); Charles Najman (cinema); Gerard Limits (education, director of the French college of Jacmel); Leon François Hoffmann (literature); and the director ex-officio French Institute of Port-au-Prince, which would be used as secretary permanent.
Function: to announce, stimulate or invent what, in the field of culture, could be made in France for Haiti, Haiti for France, on various subjects: regrouping of files to the reception of research students, in passing by exposures, emissions, twinning-radio, conferences, etc This Council could in particular, in the capacity as jury, to decree each year with a young author, creator or student, a price of 2000 €, financed with equal shares by a French private banking (Bank of the Antilles, by example) and Haitian (Unibank). It would be the price Pierre Mabille, doctor and ethnologist, surrealist, former delegate of free France in Haiti and founder of the French Institute.
24. University and research.
• Student mobility
The “passport mobility” created for the young people of overseas in formation could be used as model with a reserved similar passport to the Haitians, within the framework of the “Curi Forum” (National council for the development of international mobility of the students, instituted with the support of the Ministries of the state education and of the Foreign affairs). It would result from this one increase amongst currently existing purses, as well within the framework of the “Curi Forum” that via the “Protocol of reception of foreign scientists in France” and that of the Club of the Organizations of Seek Associés with the European Union.
• To support the university research
To encourage the creation of a doctoral School in Port-au-Prince, commune at the Haitian universities approved by the A.U.F., in partnership with French universities. The model of formation developed by the ENS with the UAG, universities of Lyon, Aix-en-Provence and Montpellier, could be used as a basis.
•Files and libraries
For the safeguarding of the collections of the National Archives, National library, of Martial Saint and Saint-Louis de Gonzague, it would be urgent to reinforce the programs of digitalization. This action could be supported by missions of formation for conservatives and more still basic technical personnel thanks to program Caribal-Edist, shutter Haiti (remote formation of librarians) associating the French Institute, the National Archives, it Caribbean office of the AUF, the National library and the Ministry for Foreign affairs (office of the network of the French media libraries with the foreigner), in relation to the School of the Librarians, Archivists and Documentalists of Dakar. Departmental records of Martinique, in partnership with the Files of France, the UAG and it Ministries for Foreign Affairs, could contribute to the formation Haitian archivists. It would be desirable to set up, by one bilateral agreement, a reciprocal system of exchange enters the registrations of copyright French and Haitian works. This exchange enters the Libraries main roads of the two countries would make it possible the Haitian publications to be accessible to the French researchers and reciprocally. A reprinting rare sources relating to the history of Haiti, since the colonial time until our days, would not be useless.
In Latin America, the sport builds the nation. Let us think of Brazil. And let us recall that if all the athletes of the area were gathered under one only flag, the Caribbean one would be at the top of the Olympic Games. France must much, under this angle also, in the Antilles and Guyana.
Haiti developed a culture of the body and relation. When it footballer Mano Sanon, at the time of a world Cut, registered a goal with Dinazoff, the immense guard of the Italian team of football to the “cages inviolate”, Haiti started to exist during a few minutes symbolic systems and real. The Haitian population allows a volume activities and exchanges single in the Caribbean one, on the spot and as a diaspora (especially in Guyana). A policy of the high level sport would be too an encouragement with the youth remained with the country and youth in diaspora. Remain that the sport cannot develop without a framing and a qualified personnel (trainers, referees, professors…) and one local economic activity (infrastructure, equipment, held…).
A French Institute of the high level sport with regional vocation could to develop in bond with the U.F.R. - S.T.A.P.S. (sciences and technology of physical-activity and sporting) of Guadeloupe, currently directed by a former national trainer of athletics and with the future UREPS of Guyana where tens of thousands of Haitians live. Sportsmen of high level of the Antilles (M. - J. Pérec, L. Thurane, Darcheville, B. LAMA, …) could be associated with its promotion. Football, athletics, cycling - popular sports in Haiti, in the Caribbean one and in France without to forget the school sports, could give place to championships regional and of the training courses, like helping with the promotion of young talents. The turns cyclists of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyana, mobilize already many sportsmen of Caribbean (Colombia, Mexico, the USA…), crowd, of the journalists, around true events caribéens. One “Turn of the Island” (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), with call to private funds, would not be it a service rendered to the construction of roads and with the meeting held on the two countries?
Mr. Pierre Michel Joassaint, former student of our National school of Administration, resulting from the college of Jacmel, Haitian nationality and residing today in its country, could be in charge of the follow-up of a certain number of these proposals.
1. “Reparations for slavery”?
By François Blancpain and Marcel Dorigny
The draft and slavery were qualified, by a law voted unanimously by French Parliament in May 2002, of “crime against humanity”, well after theirs respective abolitions, in 1815 and 1848. One can say that the 18th century is that of the apogee of the draft and slavery, the 19th century that of their abolition and 20th, more precisely its second half, that of their legal qualification of crime against humanity.
The imprescriptibility, in this case, concerns the authors of crimes and only them. If it heart is always raised in front of the vastness of the fixed price, if the lawyers deny any virtue retroactive to our contemporary laws, it is allocated to the historians the painful task of to restore the phenomenon objectively.
1) WHICH WAS ITS IMPORTANCE?
Since the end of the year 1960, the researchers gradually made leave question amongst victims of the draft of the purely ideological debate where it had sunk since decades. Today more no historian takes with serious the whimsical estimates which affirmed that the number of Africans victims triangular trade ranged between 50 and 300 million, with the liking of the authors. meticulous research undertaken in the files of the ports, the notaries, of customs and tax department, marine insurance underwriters, finally those of families of slave traders unceasingly narrowed the scale of the estimates for to reduce today to a margin of relatively mean uncertainty. Most recent publications result in affirming that the number of Africans transported to Americas ranged between 12 and 15 million, this last figure being a maximum little probable. The synthesis published by Hugh Thomas takes again these figures and gives some a breakdown by zones of origins and by “purchasing countries” (Hugh Thomas, “The Slavic trade”, edition Picador, 1997).
Purchasers zones of origins Portugal 4,650,000 slaves The west coast of Africa (Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone) 2,250,000 England 2,600,000 The south-western coast (Ivory Coast, Ghana.) 1,750,000 Spain 1,600,000 The coast of the slaves (Togo, Benign) 2,000,000 France 1,250,000 The gulf of Guinea (Nigeria) 2,000,000 Netherlands 500,000 (Gabon, Congo, Angola) 4,000,000 Other countries (Denmark, the United States…) 400,000 Mozambique, Madagascar the Southern part 1,000,000 Total 11,000 000 Total 13,000,000
Transported Africans of Africa to America between 1440 and 1870. This to limit us to the only transatlantic traffic.
2) WHO OF IT WAS RESPONSIBLE?
• Salesmen? In fact the littoral African companies were them providers of prisoners to answer at the request of the European ships. It trade was very advantageous (its duration even confirms its profitability): salesmen African of slaves made of it their primary source of richness and power, playing competitions between European nations and being based on the needs increasing for American plantations. If the draft devastated regions of Africa in depopulating and by blocking any possibility of development of a stable economy, it did not enrich any less by others. Today, taking into account, in particular of colonial recuttings, it would be quite imprudent to claim to disentangle which are them heirs to the hunters and the salesmen of prisoners and who are the descendants of victims. The geography of the draft varied much during centuries and it has transformed areas “saleswomen” into areas victims of other salesmen. Africa was thus at the same time one of the partners except for whole of the traffic slave trader and main victim of a major human puncture.
• European purchasers? It is undeniable that Europe was the “client” of this trade and in fact primarily the Atlantic powers have it impelled; but not exclusively they, bus of the continental areas provided in abundance goods of draft necessary to the purchases on the coasts of Africa. It is thus impossible to isolate one from the actors from what was a commercial activity implying whole pieces of the companies of Europe at the time modern and lasting a considerable part of the 19th century. Among the “applicants” of prisoners, it is necessary also to include the European “outgrowths” of the New World: The United States continued the draft after their independence and especially Brazil which had taken the relay of Portugal well before 1822 and which was made the first nation négrière with 19th century, in spite of the international prohibition of this traffic. In the same way, majority of the American States resulting from the European colonial empires maintained a long time practice of the exploitation of the slaves, after the abolitions issued by principal European powers in what remained to them colonies. They have fully assumed, from this point of view, the heritage of the European colonizers.
Any search for “collective responsibility” is likely to be lost in a total second reading of very whole human history since at least the XV century.
3) WHO, ACCORDING TO THE DEFENDERS OF “REPAIR”, SHOULD BE COMPENSATES?
That which can prove that it is downward of slave, and slave only, therefore of “pure African race”. The constitutional statute of the citizenship, in France, east incompatible with the introduction of a racial categorization of this kind.
4) WHO SHOULD COMPENSATE?
One returns from there to questions 1 and 2 above. It will also be necessary to be able to find nationality of the conveying boat, the nationality of the salesman and that of the purchaser.
5) HOW TO CALCULATE THE AMOUNT OF THE ALLOWANCE?
Would it be necessary to be able to prove and quantify the damage and for which? Determination well random when the applicant thinks of coming slaves who were released, there are two centuries.
Posed thus, the request for “repairs” for the draft and slavery insert in a logic that the historian or the lawyer cannot admit without extremes reserves. It seems more judicious to take note today qualification of “crime against the humanity” of acts concerned with one time practices different from ours, where the ethical values were obviously not comparable and where slavery seemed to be universally admitted by the human society, since ancient civilizations until modern times, including in Africa. moral judgment of slavery as such, unknown factor of the philosophers antiques just like of the founders and the continuators of Christianity, emerged in Europe, at the moment when the colonization of America started. It “crime against humanity” cannot be the subject of “repairs today” pecuniary, but its historical existence must be taught and the memory of victims must be constantly recalled to the new generations.
2. “Restitution of the debt of independence”?
By François Blancpain and Marcel Dorigny
In Saint-Domingue, under the Former regime, the Blacks, slaves, lived under dependence of the white colonists, which were under the economic supervision and financial of the tradesmen and ship-owners of the metropolis pursuant to the rule of “the Exclusive one”. Owing to disorders of the Revolution and under the impulse of ideals of freedom and equality, the slaves of Santo Domingo entered in insurrection armed as from at the end of August 1791. This servile revolt was certainly not the first of this nature, but it was of a width such as repression was impotent to reduce it and that the representatives of France in the colony last to pronounce of their own authority the general abolition of slavery in the colony, the August 29th and September 21st, 1793. It was the first victory obtained by insurgent slaves. National Convention, in Paris, was brought to ratify this decision, by the decree of February 4th, 1794, which extended abolition to all the colonies Frenchwomen. Thus the French Republic was it, in 1794, the first in the world with to issue the general abolition of slavery. As from this moment Santo Domingo was more populated only French citizens. This mode of “general freedom” existed legally until 1802. Indeed at this time, the First Bonaparte consul tried to restore the old order, for reasons of economic profitability and idea that it was made “national dignity”. It followed a war of independence, particularly fatal which lasted two years and was completed by the defeat of the body expeditionary French and the proclamation of the independence of Haiti on January 1st 1804.
First decisions of the very new Haitian Government, as of January and February 1804, were to confiscate all the properties of the colonists and to make to massacre all the White which were still in the country, thus cutting all the bridges between France and Haiti.
As of the first Restoration, in 1814, France tried, by negotiations, to make to return Haiti in the bosom of the French colonies. The Haitians refused categorically any French subjection, even purely nominal, but proposed by the voice of their president Alexandre Pétion, the payment of one allowance “reasonably calculated” to compensate the colonists. Negotiations on the amount of this allowance had not led yet to the death of Louis
XVIII. Seven months after its advent, Charles X, more expeditious than his/her brother, sent a squadron to carry to the president d' Haïti, Jean-Pierre Boyer, an ordinance dated April 17th, 1825 and whose 2 principal articles are: “Article 2) inhabitants current of the French part of Santo Domingo will pour with the Central Case of Deposits and Consignments of France, in five equal terms, year by year, it the first falling due on December 31st, 1825, the sum of 150 franc million, intended for to compensate the former colonists who will claim an allowance. Article3) Us let us concede with these conditions, by the present ordinance, with the current inhabitants of French part of Santo Domingo, independence full and whole of their government”.
After a few days of hesitations, President Boyer accepted the ordinance and did it to ratify by the Senate.
It paid the first term thanks to a loan placed at Paris and undertook then negotiations for the revision of the amount and the terms of payment.
However, the acceptance of the ordinance released Haiti of the ostracism of the countries foreigners who, consequently, tied diplomatic relations.
The negotiations succeeded on February 12th, 1838 by the signature of two separate treaties.
The first recognized the independence of Haiti, without condition and stipulated in sound article 2: “There will be constant peace and perpetual friendship between France and Republic of Haiti like between the citizens of the two States, without exception of people nor of places. ”
The second brought back from 120 to 60 million the remainder to pay (either a total debt of 60 + 30 of the equal loan 1825 90 million) and extended over 30 years the period of payment.
These treaties were ratified by the Haitian Senate on February 14th, by king Louis-Philippe it May 21st and the exchanges of ratification took place on May 28th.
The negotiation was carried out this time without any military pressure (the negotiators were not accompanied by a squadron as in 1825) nor policy (Haiti was right now recognized by most powers, except for the United States). The allowance paid with the old metropolis by Haiti remains a single example, which can be compared to allowances provided for in the treaty of independence of the States Linked with the profit of the English who had refused to become American and who had left the old colony, during or after the war of independence.
Haiti honoured its signature and paid the entirety of the 90 million. One only had to grant a lengthening of the terms of payment for the periods of disorders policies so that the debt was balanced only in 1883, instead of 1867, like provided for in the treaty. In spite of this interruption in the payments, in particular enters 1843 and 1849 like between 1867 and 1870, the Haitians impeccably held theirs engagements.
3. Religious situation
By Gilles Danroc o.p.
In the absence of reliable statistical data and credible investigations, “one” announces the following figures to take with much more the serious one than it does not appear to with it: 80% of catholics, 40% of Protestants and… 90% of vaudouisants. Religious situation very complex at the same time as very evolutionary. The recent work of Andre Corten applies the concept of Hannah Arendt, desolation, with the comprehension of “Misery, Policy and Religion in Haiti” (Karthala, 2000). Desolation prevents all construction or structuring of the people and the companies. In particular in shantytowns of Port-au-Prince. In front of the failure of the political life one in remainder with one situation pre-policy the religions give the possibility of an adhesion immediate and fusional with a group believing. In this direction, the churches Pentecostalists as the “Assemblies of God” are more at a peak. The principle of religious recombining in work in the Haitian company is checked: that which does not have nothing takes all since it is necessary to integrating into its way of the different elements designed like irreconcilable!
However the Catholic church, recipient of the colonial system, had it a long time monopoly of the religion in Haiti. But what could live and understand of its rites and of its catechesis slaves torn off in Africa (Bossales)? Colonists Europeans or Creoles are more in search of material richnesses than of missions evangelic! However, several religious capuchins of the area of the Cape in 1791 will take makes and causes for Révoltés at the cost of their lives whereas they depended directly of the East India Company. Toussaint-Louverture learned how to read and write at the time of its catechesis before the prohibition of the Creole (1763). He proclaimed his faith Christian woman until her death. But the assessment of the colonial church remains very thin and especially very ambiguous!
Between the collapse of the colony and the Legal settlement of 1860, the vacuum left by the Church catholic will allow the creation of the voodoo by harmonization and integration of various forms of “African traditional religions of the reanimating West” old Christian backdrop. But true creation, the voodoo recomposes one the Pantheon integrating the historical figures of the epic of independence. It thus distinguish from Africa and close forms like Brazilian Candomblé or Santoria of Cuba. The Voodoo is intrinsically mixed with the constitution with Haitian and majority rural culture. It can be completely conceived like complementary to Catholicism even if the reverse is officially not true! By against Protestantism - present since 1816 - known as to break with the voodoo not without to reproduce until in the most current forms of the pentecotism, the visions common nuns. However, religions, integrated so well into rural environment Haitian, must take up today the challenge of the urbanization anarchistic and gallopping in Haiti.
On the American continent, Protestantism results in the very many ones autonomous churches. How much is they and which representativenesses do they have? No one knows. They are very active to the patients and assert more half of population vis-a-vis the certificated Catholic church whose influence seems to decrease, with the loss of the institutional reference marks in Haiti these last years. If François Duvalier had believed to sit her power thanks to the creation of an episcopate black by the renegotiation of the Legal settlement under the Pope Paul VI, the evolution of the church after the Concile Vatican II and the influence of the relations with the Latin America oblige to give up the privilege of nomination of the bishops at the time of the visit of the Pope Jean-Paul II in Haiti, on March 9th, 1983.
“It is necessary that the things change here and that the poor take again hope here” what will describe the evolution of the Haitian company, until our days. The Father Aristide will be carried with the power in 1991 by this ground swell. More than 10 years after, the democracy is always far. Certain Protestant churches would like to take their share of to be able, but this current is not majority. Within Protestantisms, only Protestant federation and the church épiscopalienne of Haiti can bring cohesion and credibility within the civil society. The catholic Episcopal conference tries to exceed the divisions created by the accession of President Aristide to the power. The agreement between Federation and Conference can present an ethical reference of importance per time of crisis.
The religious fact remains dominating in Haiti in the constitution of a culture of Nation and of the State. The organized churches can, moreover, open the ground if difficult of access, with the meetings, the Community development and the exchanges of all kinds. On the other hand, much of small churches make the simple one against-productive humane distribution. However, the churches play large role out of educational matter and compensate a weak state which cannot answer social request. They can thus help with the constitution of a nation - well commun run, with the economic development decentralized - by the access to the ground, with civic education and with the control of the respect of the human rights - by problematic justice and peace and to serve as useful mediation in the evolution of Haiti towards the Rule of law if they are released definitively from the dreams of the power.
4. Pandiassou: an original community.
By Veronique Albanel
Pandiassou is a rural locality located near Hinche, chief town of the plate exchange. Since 1976, it is also the site of the congregation of “Small Brothers of the Incarnation” (PFI). This Haitian religious community, attached to family of Fraternities Charles of Foucault, was rested by the Francklin brother Armand, old today 56 years, who chose “to become peasant among peasants”.
The first fraternity took time to be made accept by the peasants - among poorer of Haiti by simply offering its assistance and its support. Once accepted by its neighbors, she undertook, at the request of the peasants and with them, construction of a school. Thus the adventure began from the little brothers from the incarnation.
The community counts today 19 fraternities (50 little brothers and 30 small sisters) divided into several places of the country, resting on nearly 300 collaborators and radiant on a population of 350,000 people approximately. The brother Francklin Armand intends to fight mainly against the three forms of erosion which destroys Haiti: 1 the erosion of the ground, related to deforestation general; 2 the economic erosion (by plundering and inertia), which ruins the campaigns and cause the phenomenon of the shantytowns; 3 erosion intellectual, due in particular with the escape of the elites abroad.
The congregation, integrated within the country world, develops its activity in three principal fields: 1 secondary and higher formation of PFI and PSIS, construction of several elementary schools and secondaries, with a teaching bilingual (Creole and French) and the animation of a popular university with Pandiassou for the training of the adults. 2 the support the most stripped for with a dispensary medical and of the antennas formed with first aid, about ten centers of infantile nutrition ensuring two meals per day more than 500 children from 0 to 5 years, one formation with the basic rules of the nutrition to the mothers of young people and the training of the reading for the 3-5 years. 3 economic development with the construction of several tens of lakes collinaires allowing to collect water during the rain season to irrigate the grounds during the dry season; creation of agricultural cooperatives allowing to incite the peasants to cultivate their ground while placing at their disposal of the average commun runs for the culture, harvest, transformation and distribution; the installation of a structure of micro credit intended for the peasants, supplemented recently by a credit in kind (ready of a cow or of a full goat refunded by two calves or kids raised during one year) and of local structures of development with the construction in particular of one slaughter-house, of a butchery, a pork-butchery and a garage. Pandiassou already started to swarm. The Congregation thus took responsibility for new projects of the same type in the area of Jacmel and in plain of the North-East. The objective remains always the same one: to make of the peasant a “man upright”.
The PFI-PSI receive currently various contributions, mainly under form gifts, in particular coming from Universal Fraternal Association (AFU) in Paris and European Union.
5. Loans without refunding of the capital.
By Serge Robert and François Blancpain.
To minimize the load for the borrower compared to a traditional loan with refunding of the capital; to reduce the risk of the lender to only assembling interests; to allow the lender to increase his possibilities of loans.
One uses the action leverage produced by the placement of part of the availabilities of lender in OAT coupon zero (obligations comparable of the Treasury to coupon zero of which the capitalized interests are paid during refunding).
It is enough to place in OAT coupon zero part of the availabilities to such kind that at the end of the placement, generally twenty to thirty years, its product are equal to summon that one wants to lend to the borrower.
So the borrower will not have to refund the borrowed capital since it is ensured by the refunding of the OAT. It will have to pay only the interests. On this point, two cases of figure are to be considered:
a) The whole of the funds available to the lender - those placed in OAT and those put at provision of the borrower are equities of the lender or funds which it has itself borrowed on the market. In these cases, the borrower must pay totality interests on these two sums (increased expenses of the Bank which went up the operation).
b) If, on the contrary, the funds invested in OAT are grants by lender (received AFD for example), the borrower will only pay interests on the only amount of its loan.
Example: Based on the current conditions of the market of the capital, the table hereafter indicates, for a loan over 20 years of 100 million Euros, on the one hand, the lever effect and, on the other hand, economy for the borrower according to the nature of the funds invested in OAT (funds to be remunerated or funds received in nonrefundable subsidy).
Charge for the borrower Traditional loan 100 M Euros market of capital 100 M Euros Loan with the borrower 100 M Euros by the borrower 100 M Euros Capital 218 M Euros interests 318 M Euros Loan with effect of lever without subsidy 160 M Euros market of capital 60 M Euros in OAT 100 M Euros with the borrower 160 M Euros by OAT 276 M Euros interests Loan with effect 38 M Euros 38 M Euros in 100 M Euros 173 M Euros interests of lever with subsidy OAT by OAT subsidy 100 M Euros 100 M Euros with market of capital the borrower
In both cases of figure, the total load for the borrower is undervalued by report with a traditional loan with refunding of the capital.
In both cases of figure with action leverage by placement of part of the funds in OAT, the rate of credit than in the case of a traditional loan because it is weaker does not have there risk of non-repayment of the capital.
In the case of figure with subsidy, the borrower can profit from a loan of 100 Mr. Euros (at the rate of 8.6%), instead of a subsidy limited to 38 M Euros. With title of comparison, the financial expenses for the borrower are, in this case, equivalent to that of a traditional loan at the rate of 5,9%.
Task force and of proposals on the Free-Haitian relations.
Veronique ALBANEL, Association Universal Fraternity Florence ALEXIS, Cultural relations Gerard BARTHELEMY, Anthropologist and historian François BLANCPAIN, Financial management, economic history Yvon CHOTARD, Deputy mayor of Nantes, “Rings of the Memory” Myriam COTTIAS, In charge of research at CNRS Jacky DAHOMAY, Professor of philosophy to Point-with-Clown Gilles DANROC, Dominican Govern DEBRAY, European Institut in sciences of the religions Marcel DORIGNY, Professor of history in Paris VIII Serge ROBERT, President of the Bank of the French West Indies Philippe SELZ, Ambassador (in the past in Haiti)
COMMERCIAL François, Administration, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, DGCID
Agreed to be auditioned by the Committee the following personalities, by order
Robert AGENEAU Jean-Pierre ALAUX Robert BADINTER Mimi BARTHELEMY Jean-François BAZIN Marie-Paule BELMAS Christophe BENOIT WELCOME Gilles Herve BOLLOT Patrick BOURSIN Michel PIKE Josette BRUFFAERTS Brigitte COLLET Greg CHAMBERLAIN René Depestre Lila DESQUIRON Felipe DONOSO Bernard DORIN Thierry FAGART Benoit HARVEST SPIDER Paul FARMER Christian GIRAUD Leon-François HOFFMAN Laënnec HURBON Louis JOINET François LABALLE Robert MALVAL
Director of the Karthala Editions GISTI, migrations Former President of the Constitutional council, Senator Narrator, culture MAE, subdirectorate of the Central America and the Caribbean French National Commission, UNESCO Lawyer MAE, Central America subdirectorate and the Caribbean Director of the cabinet of the Minister for the Co-operation and the Francophonie MAE, Ambassador, delegated to the regional Co-operation Researcher, GRET, CNEARC Consulting UNDP, ONG MAE, French delegation with the Conference of Durban Journalist Writer Minister for the Culture of Haiti Mission leader, International committee of the Red Cross Ambassador of France Lawyer, expert of the United Nations Haiti collective Doctor, professor Harvard and Collège de France, “Zanmi Health” CNRS/CREDAL, geographer Professor with Princeton, Academic Anthropologist, writer Independent expert of ONUsur Human rights in Haiti Catholic delegation with the co-operation Former Prime Minister of Haiti Myrvine MARCELLIN Psychological, Collective Haiti in France Jean MATOUK Economist, former President of the Marseilles Company of Credit Geographical Jean-Louis MAURER Coordinator, DGCID Jean METELLUS Psychiatrist, writer Charles NAJMAN Scenario writer Patrice PAOLI MAE, Assistant editor of Americas and the Caribbean Raoul PECK Former minister for the Culture of Haiti, scenario writer Alain RAYMOND French Association of the Volunteers for Progress Claude RIBBE Writer Rosa-Myriam RIBEIRO Brothers of the Men, Latin America Didier ROBERT Directing of the French Agency of Development in Santo Domingo Pierre-Jean ROCA University of Bordeaux, rural development Veronique ROSSILLON College Alcibiade Pommayrac, Jacmel RUSTED Henri of ORFEUIL Equitable trade Jean-Louis SABATIÉ MAE, chief of the Mission of non-governmental Co-operation Robert SAUREL Ambassador of Haiti in France Alain RAYMOND Volunteers for Progress Appointed Christiane TAUBIRA of Guyana Lyonel TROUILLOT Writer, teacher Paul VERMANDE Ex-director of the Office of the AUPELF-UREF Jean-Bernard MINNOW Arranges French Development Christophe WARGNY Professor, journalist Emmanuel WESNER Ambassador of Haiti at UNESCO
Centering ABELLAR Engineer Ponts and fitted, Near. STP Mario ALVAREZ Qualified schoolteacher, senior of the Medical college Philippe ANTONIO Foreign Minister of Haiti André APAID Groups of the 184 Brother Francklin ARMAND Little brothers of the Incarnation, Pandiassou Pierre-Robert AUGUSTE President of the Contractors of Artibonite Jean-Claude BAJEUX Former minister for the Culture of Haiti Anthony BARBER Groups of the 184 Victor democratic BENOIT Convergence Paul BÉRANGER Groups of the 184 Paul-Antoine BIENAIMÉ Former minister for Education Pierre-Marie Sogebank DRINK Gerard LIMITS Directing College Alcibiade Pommayrac de Jacmel Carl BRAUN Unibank Financial Carmelle JEAN-MARIE OCEOR Jean CASIMIR Ancien ambassador from Haiti to Washington, sociologist Suzy BEAVER OPL, economist Syto UNDERMINED Theater, Group NOT! Jean CAZENAVE Festival of Biarritz, QUOTED IT Bernard CHANCY Structures, town planning Ginette CHERUB Architect, Group NOT! Franck MOVIES chairman HAïTEL François CLEMENT Tèt Kolé, peasants of Artibonite Magali COMEAU DENIS Theater, French Institute of Haiti Mgr Hubert CONSTANT President of the Episcopal conference Bernard COURAGE Programs Education, Minister of education National Lyonel DARTIGUENAVE Unibank Rosny DESROCHES Former minister for Education Max DOMINIQUE Spiritain Mr. DUCHEMIN Co-operation justice Mario DUPUY Secretary of State to the Communication Paul DURET Minister for Education and Planning Lyonel ETIENNE President of the free-Haitian Chamber of commerce Jean-Joseph EXUMÉ Former minister for Justice Thierry of Directing FEYDEAU of Total in Haiti Karine FRANÇOIS Unibank Nicolas FRELOT French Mission of Co-operation STRONG Micha Biologist, democratic Spokesperson Convergence Serge GILLES Member of the International Socialist Father Jan HANSSENS Commission “Justice and Peace” Michel HECTOR President of the Company of History and Geography of Haiti Franck HELMCKE Unibank Daniel HENRYS Former minister for Health, GRET Mr. JACQUES Zones Community Jealousy, Bornes fountains and craft industry Yolette JEANTY CONAP, ENFOFANM, Women's right Pierre-Michel JOASSAINT Former student of College A. Pomeyrade and the ENA Philippe LAHENS free-Haitian Chamber of commerce Yannick LAHENS Groups 184, writer Father TO BLEAT IT Priest of Saint-Jacob Benson LOTHIN Unibank Daniele MAGLOIRE ENFOFANM, feminist Reference library Mirlande MANIGAT Constitutionnaliste Re-examined Guy MAXIMILIEN Conjunction Myriam MERLET ENFOFANM, feminist Reference library Industrial Gregory MEVS Smarck MICHEL Former Prime Minister Michel MONNIN Galeriste Michele ORIOL Anthropologist, Historian Directing Patrick PAUTONNIER of the French Institute of Haiti Jonas SMALL General secretary, Fanmi Lavalas Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES Economist, coordinator OPL Michele PIERRE-LOUIS President of Foundation FOKAL Barbara PRÉZEAU Plasticienne, AfricAmerica Foundation, BID Commander ROY Co-operation Judicial police William SMART Spiritain Patrick VILAIRE Sculptor, Social engineering and cultural Leslie VOLTAIRE Minister for the Haitians from abroad
Mr. Régis Debray, during various stays, was received, twice, by President Aristide. Were also met, accompanied by Mrs. Veronique Albanel and of Mr. Philippe Selz: Mgr Luigi Bonazzi, Apostolic nuncio, Mr. David Lee, Chief of Mission of the OAS, Mrs. Zuma, Foreign Minister of South Africa, Mr. James Foley, Ambassador of the United States, Mr. Alfredo Despradel, Ambassador of the Republic Dominican with Port-au-Prince, Mr. Edouard Paultre, Representative of the Protestant Churches and it Pasteur Jean-Baptiste, Brother Jean max Hugues, Dominican, Mr. Philippe Lerebours, Director of the Saint-Pierre museum, Mr. Claude Moïse, Historien, the Franklin Brother Armand, “Little brothers of the Incarnation”, Mr. Carl Braun, President d' Unibank, like Mr. Winter Etienne, Representative of “the Army Cannibal” and Mgr. Péan, Bishop of Gonaïves. Mr. Small Jonas, President of the Lavalas party, Mr. Philippe Antonio, Foreign Minister, Haitian Mrs. Lila Desquiron, Minister for the Culture, Mr. Guy Alexandre, former Ambassador of Haiti in Dominican Republic, Mr. Evans Paul, Democratic Convergence, Mr. Chavanne Jean-Baptiste, country Leader of plate centered (MPP) L, Mr. Serge Gilles, Membre of the International Socialist, Mr. Gerard Pierre Charles, Coordinator of the OPL and Mr. Pierre Sançon Prince, Senator Lavalas. In Dominican Republic: the President of the Republic Mr. Hipolito Mijia, Mr. Franck Maya Pons, Minister of environment, Mr. max Puig, former minister and coordinator of the European funds, Mr. Hugo Tolentino, former Vice-chancellor and president of the Parliament from Santo Domingo, Mr. Pelegrin Castillo, Dominican Deputy and Mr. Fernando Capellan, President of the Capellan Group.
In the Guadeloupe, were consulted: Mr. Vian Prefect,
Mrs. Michaux-Chevry, President of the District council, Mr. Arconte, President of the University Antille-Guyana.
With Martinique, Mr. Aimé Césaire, the Prefect Michel Cadot and Mr. Alfred Marie-Jeanne, President of the District council.